Clinical Practice & Epidemiology in Mental Health

ISSN: ― Volume ,

Assessment of Extrapyramidal Symptoms Associated with Psychotropics Pharmacological Treatments, and Associated Risk Factors

Dania Abu-Naser1, *, Sara Gharaibeh2, Ahmad Z. Al Meslamani3, Qais Alefan2, Renad Abunaser2
1 Department of Applied Sciences, Irbid University College, Al-Balqa’ Applied University, Irbid, Jordan
2 Faculty of Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan
3 College of Pharmacy, Al Ain University of Science and Technology, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates



Extrapyramidal Symptoms (EPS) are unwanted symptoms commonly originating from the use of certain medications. The symptoms can range from minimal discomfort to permanent involuntary muscular movements. The aims of the study were to examine the incidence of drug-induced extrapyramidal symptoms (di-EPS), associated risk factors, and clinical characteristics.


This is a retrospective, observational study of di-EPS conducted in outpatient clinics of Jordan using the longitudinal health database (Hakeem®) for data collection. Patients who received drugs with the risk of EPS during the period 2010-2020 were included and followed. Patients with any of the known underlying conditions that may cause EPS or were currently taking drugs that may mask the symptoms were excluded. Gender and age-matched control subjects were included in the study. The Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS®) version 26 was used for data analysis.


The final dataset included 34898 exposed patients and 69796 matched controls. The incidence of di-EPS ranged from 9.8% [Amitriptyline 25mg] to 28.9% (Imipramine 25mg). Baseline factors associated with a significantly higher risk of developing di-EPS were age {HR: 1.1 [95%CI: 0.8-1.2, p=0.003], smoking {HR: 1.7 (95%CI: 1.3-2.2), p=0.02}, tremor history {HR: 7.4 (95%CI: 5.9-8.3), p=.002} and history of taking antipsychotics {HR: 3.9, (95% CI: 2.5-4.6), p=0.001}. Patients taking paroxetine {HR: 8.6 [95%CI: 7.4-9.8], p=.0002},imipramine {HR: 8.3, [7.1-10.5], p=0.01}, or fluoxetine {HR: 8.2 (95%CI: 6.8-9.3), p=.006} had a significantly higher risk of developing di-EPS compared to patients taking citalopram. Myoclonus, blepharospasm, symptoms of the basal ganglia dysfunction, and organic writers' cramp were reported among participants.


Patients treated with paroxetine, imipramine, fluoxetine, or clomipramine had a higher risk of developing di-EPS than patients treated with citalopram. The difference in gender was not significantly related to di-EPS development. Whereas age, smoking, and history of taking antipsychotics were significantly associated with di-EPS development.

Key findings:

• High incidence of drug-induced extrapyramidal symptoms (di-EPS) was reported

• Age, smoking, tremor history, and history of taking antipsychotics were risk factors of drug-induced extrapyramidal symptoms.

• Patients taking paroxetine, imipramine or fluoxetine had a significantly higher risk of developing di-EPS compared to patients taking citalopram

Keywords: Extrapyramidal symptom,Mental health, Antidepressant, Jordan,Outpatient, Risk Factorsextrapyramidal symptom,Risk Factors.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2021
Volume: 17
First Page: 1
Last Page: 7
Publisher Id: CPEMH-17-1
DOI: 10.2174/1745017902117010001

Article History:

Received Date: 17/7/2020
Revision Received Date: 8/12/2020
Acceptance Date: 23/12/2020
Electronic publication date: 16/02/2021
Collection year: 2021

© 2021 Abu-Naser et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at Department of Applied Sciences, Irbid University College, Al-Balqa’ Applied University, Irbid, Jordan; Tel: +962795592347; E-mail:

Track Your Manuscript:


"Open access will revolutionize 21st century knowledge work and accelerate the diffusion of ideas and evidence that support just in time learning and the evolution of thinking in a number of disciplines."

Daniel Pesut
(Indiana University School of Nursing, USA)

"It is important that students and researchers from all over the world can have easy access to relevant, high-standard and timely scientific information. This is exactly what Open Access Journals provide and this is the reason why I support this endeavor."

Jacques Descotes
(Centre Antipoison-Centre de Pharmacovigilance, France)

"Publishing research articles is the key for future scientific progress. Open Access publishing is therefore of utmost importance for wider dissemination of information, and will help serving the best interest of the scientific community."

Patrice Talaga
(UCB S.A., Belgium)

"Open access journals are a novel concept in the medical literature. They offer accessible information to a wide variety of individuals, including physicians, medical students, clinical investigators, and the general public. They are an outstanding source of medical and scientific information."

Jeffrey M. Weinberg
(St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, USA)

"Open access journals are extremely useful for graduate students, investigators and all other interested persons to read important scientific articles and subscribe scientific journals. Indeed, the research articles span a wide range of area and of high quality. This is specially a must for researchers belonging to institutions with limited library facility and funding to subscribe scientific journals."

Debomoy K. Lahiri
(Indiana University School of Medicine, USA)

"Open access journals represent a major break-through in publishing. They provide easy access to the latest research on a wide variety of issues. Relevant and timely articles are made available in a fraction of the time taken by more conventional publishers. Articles are of uniformly high quality and written by the world's leading authorities."

Robert Looney
(Naval Postgraduate School, USA)

"Open access journals have transformed the way scientific data is published and disseminated: particularly, whilst ensuring a high quality standard and transparency in the editorial process, they have increased the access to the scientific literature by those researchers that have limited library support or that are working on small budgets."

Richard Reithinger
(Westat, USA)

"Not only do open access journals greatly improve the access to high quality information for scientists in the developing world, it also provides extra exposure for our papers."

J. Ferwerda
(University of Oxford, UK)

"Open Access 'Chemistry' Journals allow the dissemination of knowledge at your finger tips without paying for the scientific content."

Sean L. Kitson
(Almac Sciences, Northern Ireland)

"In principle, all scientific journals should have open access, as should be science itself. Open access journals are very helpful for students, researchers and the general public including people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals. The articles are high standard and cover a wide area."

Hubert Wolterbeek
(Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)

"The widest possible diffusion of information is critical for the advancement of science. In this perspective, open access journals are instrumental in fostering researches and achievements."

Alessandro Laviano
(Sapienza - University of Rome, Italy)

"Open access journals are very useful for all scientists as they can have quick information in the different fields of science."

Philippe Hernigou
(Paris University, France)

"There are many scientists who can not afford the rather expensive subscriptions to scientific journals. Open access journals offer a good alternative for free access to good quality scientific information."

Fidel Toldrá
(Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Spain)

"Open access journals have become a fundamental tool for students, researchers, patients and the general public. Many people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals benefit of them on a daily basis. The articles are among the best and cover most scientific areas."

M. Bendandi
(University Clinic of Navarre, Spain)

"These journals provide researchers with a platform for rapid, open access scientific communication. The articles are of high quality and broad scope."

Peter Chiba
(University of Vienna, Austria)

"Open access journals are probably one of the most important contributions to promote and diffuse science worldwide."

Jaime Sampaio
(University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal)

"Open access journals make up a new and rather revolutionary way to scientific publication. This option opens several quite interesting possibilities to disseminate openly and freely new knowledge and even to facilitate interpersonal communication among scientists."

Eduardo A. Castro
(INIFTA, Argentina)

"Open access journals are freely available online throughout the world, for you to read, download, copy, distribute, and use. The articles published in the open access journals are high quality and cover a wide range of fields."

Kenji Hashimoto
(Chiba University, Japan)

"Open Access journals offer an innovative and efficient way of publication for academics and professionals in a wide range of disciplines. The papers published are of high quality after rigorous peer review and they are Indexed in: major international databases. I read Open Access journals to keep abreast of the recent development in my field of study."

Daniel Shek
(Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong)

"It is a modern trend for publishers to establish open access journals. Researchers, faculty members, and students will be greatly benefited by the new journals of Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. in this category."

Jih Ru Hwu
(National Central University, Taiwan)

Browse Contents

Webmaster Contact:
Copyright © 2021 Bentham Open