Polyuronides are an acidic class of polysaccharides with interesting rheological and biological properties. However,
except pectin and alginate, the structural variability of this class of polysaccharides is poor and low described in literature.
In this context, a new generation of polyuronides has been isolated from two sources in the middle of the 90’s.
Firstly, a bacterial β -(1,4) polyglucuronic acid called glucuronan was identified as the sole exopolysaccharide produced
by a bacteria belonging to the Rhizobiaceae family. Secondly, the development of the TEMPO chemistry led to the production
at large scale of oxidized cellulose called cellouronate. Both new polyuronides were largely patented and found
applications in several industrial areas. Moreover, the biodegradation study of these polysaccharides has led to the identification
of a new family of polysaccharide lyases very specific for these substrates. This review focuses on the actual
knowledge of this class of acidic polysaccharides and on the enzymes acting about them.