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Through selecting key factors such as gradient, exposure, erosive channel, soil erosion and vegetation coverage, the paper establishes the factor index system for the evaluation of the ecological system of Pengyang County, determines the weight of evaluation factors, makes analysis on key ecological factors, sets up the comprehensive sensitivity evaluation model of the ecological system, and obtains the ecological sensitivity grade, area, and spatial distribution of the study area through GIS spatial analysis function, factor superposition method, and analytic hierarchy process. The findings are as follows: the zone extremely sensitive to the ecology covers 82956.47 hm2, accounting for 32.98%. Landforms in the area usually include steep slopes with rich vegetation, and high ecological value, erosive channels, and zones affected by erosive channels, all of which are under the key protection; the zone moderately sensitive to the ecology cover 104613.69 hm2, accounting for 41.59%. Landforms in the area usually include forestlands of gentle relief and diversified plants. A good many factors should be taken into consideration in the development of the areas; the zone slightly sensitive to the ecology covers 63965.53 hm2, accounting for 25.43%. Landforms in the area are usually of low elevation and flat, mainly ordinary greenbelt with singular vegetation, sections with poor vegetation, and farmlands. The area is resistant to human disturbance and able to go through development and construction of the specific intensity. The lands can be developed for a variety of purposes, but attention should be paid to the development intensity.