1 Department of Civil Engineering, Umm Al-Qura University, P.O. Box 7398 Makkah, Saudi Arabia
The main issue in the operation of water distribution systems arises from the pressure deficiency resulting from events such as loss from leaks and bursts and loss of hydraulic capacity due to deterioration of aging water pipes. Such conditions affect the hydraulic performance of the system and the quality of water.
This paper investigates the hydraulic and water quality behavior of a selected water distribution network in Makkah city using the EPANET software.
The system was simulated under different hydraulic conditions including a loss of hydraulic capacity with pipe age and the presence of 30% leakage in the network over varying time conditions by employing extended period simulation models.
Results and Conclusion:
The results show that increasing pipe roughness with pipe age resulted in significantly low-pressure heads at the end of the network-particularly during peak demand hours. It also resulted in an increase in the rate of chlorine decay. Leakage in the network significantly affects the pressure head, resulting in pressure deficiency at some points in the network to below the minimum requirement during regular operation. The highest leakage rate occurs at periods of low demand where the pressure head in the network is high.
Keywords: Aging pipes, Extended period simulation, Hydraulic performance, Leakage, Water distribution network, Water quality.
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* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Civil Engineering, Umm Al-Qura University, P.O. Box 7398 Makkah, Saudi Arabia; Tel: +966125270000; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org