The Open Civil Engineering Journal

ISSN: ― Volume ,

Ductility and Strength Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Columns Confined by Glass and Carbon FRP Sheets

Ahmed R. Abdulrahman1, *, Bahman O. Taha2, Muhsin K. Khdir1
1 Erbil Technology Institute, Erbil Polytechnic University-Erbil, Iraq
2 Erbil Technical Engineering College, Erbil Polytechnic University, Erbil, Iraq



Fiber reinforced composite materials are becoming popular in civil engineering construction practices. One of the most practical applications of these materials is concerned with the strengthening and retrofitting of reinforced concrete compression members by means of external confinement with the GFRP sheets. The role of FRP for strengthening of existing or new reinforced concrete structures is growing at an extremely rapid pace owing mainly to the ease and speed of construction, and the possibility of the application without disturbing the existing functionality of the structure.


The ductility and strength behavior of reinforced concrete columns (Square & Circle) confined by glass and carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) sheets were experimentally investigated


In the library, we tested and cast a total of fourteen column specimens. The tested specimens in this study were square and circle columns, the square specimens tested in this experimental study had dimensions of 135x135 mm cross-section while the circle specimens had 150 mm diameter. The columns were loaded at their supports and made prepared to avoid local failure at supports due to steel plates. Two types of fiber reinforcements sheets were used for strengthening the columns (Carbon and Glass fiber polymer sheets). To prevent the highly stressed slender longitudinal bars from buckling outward, adequate amounts of steel ties were utilized in the height of the columns. During the test of the columns, the central deflection and central fiber strains were measured using dia1 gauges and strain gauges


The CFRP strains progressed very slowly before the yielding of longitudinal reinforcement bars but quickly, eventually, due to the concrete expansion in the plastic hinge. The wrapped CFRP sheets contribute to both the shear strength and the confinement of concrete in column specimens.

The results signify that the percentages of increase in the carrying load capacity due to strengthen, using carbon and glass FRP sheets, were greater in the circular columns compared with the square columns for all the types of confinements used in this study.

The ductility factor increased by the strengthen column ranged between 1.35-2.78, while the greatest ductility factor obtained when the circular columns strengthen with glass FRP sheets fully wrapped.


-The maximum ratio of increase in the carrying load capacity obtained when the column strengthens fully wrapped.

- The columns (circular and square) strengthen with carbon FRP sheets, the greater carrying load capacity obtained when compared the columns strengthen with glass FRP sheets.

-The percentages of increase in the carrying load capacity due to strengthen, using carbon and glass FRP sheets were greater in the circular columns compared with the square columns for all the types of confinements.

- The stains developed in the confined circular columns are greater than stains in the confined square columns.

-The ductility factor increased by the strengthen column, while the greatest ductility factor obtained when the circular columns strengthen with glass FRP sheets fully wrapped.

Keywords: Evaluation, Concrete quality, Reinforced concrete structures, Natural fire, Early ages, In situ test methods.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2020
Volume: 14
First Page: 56
Last Page: 65
Publisher Id: TOCIEJ-14-56
DOI: 10.2174/1874149502014010056

Article History:

Received Date: 12/12/2019
Revision Received Date: 16/03/2020
Acceptance Date: 27/03/2020
Electronic publication date: 05/06/2020
Collection year: 2020

© 2020 Abdulrahman et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: ( This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Erbil Technology Institute, Erbil Polytechnic University, Erbil, Iraq; Tel: 009647504802152; E-mail:

Track Your Manuscript:


"Open access will revolutionize 21st century knowledge work and accelerate the diffusion of ideas and evidence that support just in time learning and the evolution of thinking in a number of disciplines."

Daniel Pesut
(Indiana University School of Nursing, USA)

"It is important that students and researchers from all over the world can have easy access to relevant, high-standard and timely scientific information. This is exactly what Open Access Journals provide and this is the reason why I support this endeavor."

Jacques Descotes
(Centre Antipoison-Centre de Pharmacovigilance, France)

"Publishing research articles is the key for future scientific progress. Open Access publishing is therefore of utmost importance for wider dissemination of information, and will help serving the best interest of the scientific community."

Patrice Talaga
(UCB S.A., Belgium)

"Open access journals are a novel concept in the medical literature. They offer accessible information to a wide variety of individuals, including physicians, medical students, clinical investigators, and the general public. They are an outstanding source of medical and scientific information."

Jeffrey M. Weinberg
(St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, USA)

"Open access journals are extremely useful for graduate students, investigators and all other interested persons to read important scientific articles and subscribe scientific journals. Indeed, the research articles span a wide range of area and of high quality. This is specially a must for researchers belonging to institutions with limited library facility and funding to subscribe scientific journals."

Debomoy K. Lahiri
(Indiana University School of Medicine, USA)

"Open access journals represent a major break-through in publishing. They provide easy access to the latest research on a wide variety of issues. Relevant and timely articles are made available in a fraction of the time taken by more conventional publishers. Articles are of uniformly high quality and written by the world's leading authorities."

Robert Looney
(Naval Postgraduate School, USA)

"Open access journals have transformed the way scientific data is published and disseminated: particularly, whilst ensuring a high quality standard and transparency in the editorial process, they have increased the access to the scientific literature by those researchers that have limited library support or that are working on small budgets."

Richard Reithinger
(Westat, USA)

"Not only do open access journals greatly improve the access to high quality information for scientists in the developing world, it also provides extra exposure for our papers."

J. Ferwerda
(University of Oxford, UK)

"Open Access 'Chemistry' Journals allow the dissemination of knowledge at your finger tips without paying for the scientific content."

Sean L. Kitson
(Almac Sciences, Northern Ireland)

"In principle, all scientific journals should have open access, as should be science itself. Open access journals are very helpful for students, researchers and the general public including people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals. The articles are high standard and cover a wide area."

Hubert Wolterbeek
(Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)

"The widest possible diffusion of information is critical for the advancement of science. In this perspective, open access journals are instrumental in fostering researches and achievements."

Alessandro Laviano
(Sapienza - University of Rome, Italy)

"Open access journals are very useful for all scientists as they can have quick information in the different fields of science."

Philippe Hernigou
(Paris University, France)

"There are many scientists who can not afford the rather expensive subscriptions to scientific journals. Open access journals offer a good alternative for free access to good quality scientific information."

Fidel Toldrá
(Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Spain)

"Open access journals have become a fundamental tool for students, researchers, patients and the general public. Many people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals benefit of them on a daily basis. The articles are among the best and cover most scientific areas."

M. Bendandi
(University Clinic of Navarre, Spain)

"These journals provide researchers with a platform for rapid, open access scientific communication. The articles are of high quality and broad scope."

Peter Chiba
(University of Vienna, Austria)

"Open access journals are probably one of the most important contributions to promote and diffuse science worldwide."

Jaime Sampaio
(University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal)

"Open access journals make up a new and rather revolutionary way to scientific publication. This option opens several quite interesting possibilities to disseminate openly and freely new knowledge and even to facilitate interpersonal communication among scientists."

Eduardo A. Castro
(INIFTA, Argentina)

"Open access journals are freely available online throughout the world, for you to read, download, copy, distribute, and use. The articles published in the open access journals are high quality and cover a wide range of fields."

Kenji Hashimoto
(Chiba University, Japan)

"Open Access journals offer an innovative and efficient way of publication for academics and professionals in a wide range of disciplines. The papers published are of high quality after rigorous peer review and they are Indexed in: major international databases. I read Open Access journals to keep abreast of the recent development in my field of study."

Daniel Shek
(Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong)

"It is a modern trend for publishers to establish open access journals. Researchers, faculty members, and students will be greatly benefited by the new journals of Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. in this category."

Jih Ru Hwu
(National Central University, Taiwan)

Browse Contents

Webmaster Contact:
Copyright © 2020 Bentham Open