The Open Dentistry Journal

ISSN: 1874-2106 ― Volume 14, 2020

Risk Factors of Orofacial Pain: A Population-Based Study in West Java Province, Indonesia

Rasmi Rikmasari1, Gilang Yubiliana2, Tantry Maulina3, *
1 Prosthodontic Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia
2 Community Dental Health Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia
3 Oral Surgery Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia



The management of orofacial pain in Indonesia has not been well performed, which consequently led to an increase in the orofacial pain occurrences and a decreased quality of life. One of the possible reasons for this particular matter is the lack of evaluation on the risk factors that might induce orofacial pain in some individuals.


The objective of the current study was to evaluate the risk factors of orofacial pain on productive age population in West Java province, Indonesia.


One thousand and fifty-six participants (522 males; 534 females) were recruited for the study. A questionnaire that consists of demographic questions and questions evaluating several assumed risk factors for orofacial pain was used in a single interview. All data was analyzed by using Chi Square test to test the significance, Odds Ratio (OR), as well as Relative Risk (RR) by using SPSS version 23 (IBM Statistic, USA).


The result of the current study revealed that bruxism (p<0.01), daytime clenching (p<0.01), and unilateral chewing (p<0.01) were significantly related to the occurrence of orofacial pain. It was also found that participants who performed multitude of heavy liftings at work have an increased risk (RR=1.19: 95% CI: 1.04 – 1.35) of having orofacial pain compared to those who do not.


Risk factors for the occurrence of orofacial pain on productive age population in Indonesian sample consisted of oral parafunctional habits and non-parafunctional habits, such as heavy lifting. Further study in this particular topic is of importance.

Keywords: Orofacial pain, Risk factors, Oral parafunctional habits, Indonesia, Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD), Unilateral chewing.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2017
Volume: 11
First Page: 710
Last Page: 717
Publisher Id: TODENTJ-11-710
DOI: 10.2174/1874210601711010710

Article History:

Received Date: 14/05/2017
Revision Received Date: 15/10/2017
Acceptance Date: 06/12/2017
Electronic publication date: 29/12/2017
Collection year: 2017

© 2017 Rikmasari et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: ( This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* All correspondence to this author at the Oral Surgery Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jl. Sekeloa Selatan no. 1, Bandung 40132, West Java – Indonesia; Tel: +(62)-82115513030; E-mails:,

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