Decreased Serum Levels of S-100B Protein Reflect Successful Treatment Effects in a Rabbit Model of Acute Ischemic Stroke
Sean D Woods1, Rene Flores1, Paula K Roberson2, John D Lowery3, Robert D Skinner4, William C Culp*, 1
1 Departments of Radiology, at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA
2 Departments of Biostatistics, at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA
3 Departments of Laboratory Animal Medicine, at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA
4 Departments of Neurobiology and Developmental Sciences, at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA
Serum levels of S-100B were investigated as a marker for infarct volume and response to treatment following acute ischemic stroke in rabbits. Following subselective angiography, rabbits (n=31) were embolized by injection of a 3-day-old blood clot (0.6x4.0-mm) into the internal carotid artery. Treatment began 1-hr post-embolization, groups included: Control (n=8, embolization only), tissue plasminogen activator (tPA, n=12, 0.9mg/kg), and perflutren lipid microbubbles with transcranial ultrasound (MB+US, n=11, MB at 0.16mg/kg, US at 1-MHz pulsed-wave, 0.8 W/cm2 for 1-hr). Serum S-100B levels were significantly increased (P<0.01) 24-hours following embolization in control (3.1-fold over baseline) and tPA (2.9-fold) groups, while treatment with MB+US resulted in an attenuated, non-significant (P=0.221) increase (1.6-fold). Twenty-four hour infarct volumes averaged 4.76%±1.16% for controls, 2.25%±0.95% for rabbits treated with tPA (P=0.32 vs. control), and 0.79%±0.99% for rabbits treated with MB+US (P=0.04 vs. control). Twenty-four hour concentrations of S-100B were positively correlated with infarct volume (r=0.59, P=0.0004).
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* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Radiology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 W. Markham St., Slot 556, Little Rock, AR 72205-7199, USA; Tel: (501) 686-6910; Fax: (501) 686-6900; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org