In our paper, we will discuss the epidemiological differences that are present around the world as it is expected that the difference may be due to the genetic environment or habitual and nutritional causes.
The word Keratoconus (KC) comes from the Greek words: Kerato (Cornea), and Conos (cone).
Keratoconus is a bilateral noninfectious, non-inflammatory disorder of the eye which results in gradual thinning of the cornea and distorted vision. It occurs in late childhood to early adulthood.
This degenerative condition of the cornea results in thinning of the stromal layer with consequent forward bulging of the normal shape cornea into a conical shape due to the structural weakness of the collagen fibers.
The induced abnormal profile leads to high levels of astigmatism, often combined with myopia (Nearsightedness).
Due to the progressive distortion of the cornea’s front surface, it may become increasingly difficult to correct the vision with spectacles or contact lenses, and in some patients, it may lead to hydrops formation and corneal opacity.
As we know that the cause is unknown until present day but there is a large epidemiological difference between different areas of the world and different ethnicities, and there is an increase in the number of cases occurring nowadays in the world which may be due to technology advancement or better methods of diagnosis.
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* Address correspondence to this author at the Dr.Shaheed Aso Teaching Eye Hospital Sulaymania, Iraq; Tel: 009647701529100; E-mail: Khorsirwan@yahoo.com