The Open Ophthalmology Journal

ISSN: 1874-3641 ― Volume 14, 2020

The Pattern, Presentation and Risk Factors of Ocular Trauma Among Patients Treated at Hawassa University, Referral Hospital

Kindie Desta Alem1, *, Samson Tesfaye Weldegiorgis2, Bekalu Getahun Agaje1, Demoze Delelegn Arega1
1 Department of Ophthalmology and Optometry, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia
2 Orbis International-Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia



Ocular trauma is a significant public health problem which may lead to permanent visual impairment. Being preventable, the visual impairment can occur at any age in either sex and has significant socioeconomic burden especially in developing countries.


To assess the pattern, presentation and risk factors of ocular trauma in patients treated at Hawassa University, Referral Hospital, South Ethiopia


The study was conducted from August 01, 2014 to July 31, 2015, and all patients who visited Hawassa University, Referral Hospital for ocular trauma were included in the study. Data entry and analysis was done using SPSS version 20 and the descriptive and analytic statistics were carried out.


A total of 335 patients were included into the study. Ocular trauma was observed mostly in children (65.67%) and rural dwellers (76.12%). Assault trauma and surgery, secondary to trauma, were associated with open globe injury (P = 0.021, AOR = 43.17 and P = 0.006, AOR = 25.67, respectively). The corneal tear was the most frequently observed finding (59.70%). Most of the patients (>90%) presented after 6 hours from time of ocular trauma and the treatment was commenced also after 6 hours in >95% of them. Among all patients included in the study, 59.71% of them were with visual acuity of <3/60 at presentation.


Ocular trauma was high in males, children, rural dwellers and low income families and most of the patients (>90%) presented after 6 hours from time of ocular trauma.

Keywords: Ocular, Trauma, Pattern, Presentation, Risk Factor, Hawassa, Ethiopia.

Article Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2018
Volume: 12
First Page: 300
Last Page: 307
Publisher Id: TOOPHTJ-12-300
DOI: 10.2174/1874364101812010300

Article History:

Received Date: 1/5/2018
Revision Received Date: 14/8/2018
Acceptance Date: 16/10/2018
Electronic publication date: 14/11/2018
Collection year: 2018

© 2018 Alem et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: ( This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Ophthalmology and Optometry, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia; Tel: +2519 1368 3959; E-mail:

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