The Open Orthopaedics Journal




ISSN: 1874-3250 ― Volume 13, 2019

Variation of Anatomical and Physiological Parameters that Affect Estimates of ACL Loading During Drop Landing



Thomas W Kernozek*, 1, 3, Robert J Ragan 2, 3, John D Willson 1, 3, Chelsey S Koehler 1, 2, 3, Timothy R Lopez 2, 3
1 Department of Health Professions, University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, La Crosse, WI, USA
2 Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, La Crosse, WI, USA
3 La Crosse Institute for Movement Science, University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, La Crosse, WI, USA

Abstract

Background:

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) loading during drop landing has been recently studied with a sagittal plane knee model developed by Kernozek and Ragan using mean anatomical and physiological parameters obtained from cadaveric and clinical data. It is unknown how estimates in ACL load may be altered due to variations in anatomical and physiological parameters used from other research.

Methods:

Using the same model, these parameters were systematically varied, including: tibial slope, moment arms of the patellar tendon, hamstring, and gastrocnemius at the knee and ankle, patellar tendon and hamstring line of force, ACL stiffness, and nonlinear muscle activation parameters. To determine the sensitivity of the model to changes in these parameters, each was varied independently by ±5% and by ranges reported in the literature. Changes in maximum ACL load and shear force components of the patellar tendon, hamstring, and tibio-femoral contact force were calculated from drop landing data of 21 subjects.

Results:

The variation in ACL load during drop landing from its nominal value was largest (-100% to 176%) when extremes in reported tibial slope values were utilized. Variation in the next most important parameter, patellar tendon line of force, affected ACL load by -72% to 88%.

Conclusion:

Variations in tibial slope and patellar tendon line of force had the greatest influence on estimated ACL loading during drop landing. Differences in these parameters between subjects may be just as important to ACL loading as the kinematic and kinetic performance differences observed in landing.

Keywords: Anterior cruciate ligament, biomechanics, knee, landing, tibial slope, modeling.


Article Information


Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2012
Volume: 6
First Page: 245
Last Page: 249
Publisher Id: TOORTHJ-6-245
DOI: 10.2174/1874325001206010245

Article History:

Received Date: 18/1/2012
Revision Received Date: 2/5/2012
Acceptance Date: 28/5/2012
Electronic publication date: 29/6/2012
Collection year: 2012

Article Metrics:

CrossRef Citations:
0

Total Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 1805
Abstract HTML Views: 923
PDF Downloads: 236
Total Views/Downloads: 2964

Unique Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 804
Abstract HTML Views: 548
PDF Downloads: 153
Total Views/Downloads: 1505
Geographical View

© Kernozek et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.


* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Health Professions, University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, Health Science Center, 1300 Badger Street, La Crosse, WI 54601, USA; Tel: 608-785-8468; Fax: 608-785-8460; E-mail: kernozek.thom@uwlax.edu



Endorsements



"Open access will revolutionize 21st century knowledge work and accelerate the diffusion of ideas and evidence that support just in time learning and the evolution of thinking in a number of disciplines."


Daniel Pesut
(Indiana University School of Nursing, USA)

"It is important that students and researchers from all over the world can have easy access to relevant, high-standard and timely scientific information. This is exactly what Open Access Journals provide and this is the reason why I support this endeavor."


Jacques Descotes
(Centre Antipoison-Centre de Pharmacovigilance, France)

"Publishing research articles is the key for future scientific progress. Open Access publishing is therefore of utmost importance for wider dissemination of information, and will help serving the best interest of the scientific community."


Patrice Talaga
(UCB S.A., Belgium)

"Open access journals are a novel concept in the medical literature. They offer accessible information to a wide variety of individuals, including physicians, medical students, clinical investigators, and the general public. They are an outstanding source of medical and scientific information."


Jeffrey M. Weinberg
(St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, USA)

"Open access journals are extremely useful for graduate students, investigators and all other interested persons to read important scientific articles and subscribe scientific journals. Indeed, the research articles span a wide range of area and of high quality. This is specially a must for researchers belonging to institutions with limited library facility and funding to subscribe scientific journals."


Debomoy K. Lahiri
(Indiana University School of Medicine, USA)

"Open access journals represent a major break-through in publishing. They provide easy access to the latest research on a wide variety of issues. Relevant and timely articles are made available in a fraction of the time taken by more conventional publishers. Articles are of uniformly high quality and written by the world's leading authorities."


Robert Looney
(Naval Postgraduate School, USA)

"Open access journals have transformed the way scientific data is published and disseminated: particularly, whilst ensuring a high quality standard and transparency in the editorial process, they have increased the access to the scientific literature by those researchers that have limited library support or that are working on small budgets."


Richard Reithinger
(Westat, USA)

"Not only do open access journals greatly improve the access to high quality information for scientists in the developing world, it also provides extra exposure for our papers."


J. Ferwerda
(University of Oxford, UK)

"Open Access 'Chemistry' Journals allow the dissemination of knowledge at your finger tips without paying for the scientific content."


Sean L. Kitson
(Almac Sciences, Northern Ireland)

"In principle, all scientific journals should have open access, as should be science itself. Open access journals are very helpful for students, researchers and the general public including people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals. The articles are high standard and cover a wide area."


Hubert Wolterbeek
(Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)

"The widest possible diffusion of information is critical for the advancement of science. In this perspective, open access journals are instrumental in fostering researches and achievements."


Alessandro Laviano
(Sapienza - University of Rome, Italy)

"Open access journals are very useful for all scientists as they can have quick information in the different fields of science."


Philippe Hernigou
(Paris University, France)

"There are many scientists who can not afford the rather expensive subscriptions to scientific journals. Open access journals offer a good alternative for free access to good quality scientific information."


Fidel Toldrá
(Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Spain)

"Open access journals have become a fundamental tool for students, researchers, patients and the general public. Many people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals benefit of them on a daily basis. The articles are among the best and cover most scientific areas."


M. Bendandi
(University Clinic of Navarre, Spain)

"These journals provide researchers with a platform for rapid, open access scientific communication. The articles are of high quality and broad scope."


Peter Chiba
(University of Vienna, Austria)

"Open access journals are probably one of the most important contributions to promote and diffuse science worldwide."


Jaime Sampaio
(University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal)

"Open access journals make up a new and rather revolutionary way to scientific publication. This option opens several quite interesting possibilities to disseminate openly and freely new knowledge and even to facilitate interpersonal communication among scientists."


Eduardo A. Castro
(INIFTA, Argentina)

"Open access journals are freely available online throughout the world, for you to read, download, copy, distribute, and use. The articles published in the open access journals are high quality and cover a wide range of fields."


Kenji Hashimoto
(Chiba University, Japan)

"Open Access journals offer an innovative and efficient way of publication for academics and professionals in a wide range of disciplines. The papers published are of high quality after rigorous peer review and they are Indexed in: major international databases. I read Open Access journals to keep abreast of the recent development in my field of study."


Daniel Shek
(Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong)

"It is a modern trend for publishers to establish open access journals. Researchers, faculty members, and students will be greatly benefited by the new journals of Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. in this category."


Jih Ru Hwu
(National Central University, Taiwan)


Browse Contents



Webmaster Contact: info@benthamopen.net
Copyright © 2019 Bentham Open