Translation of Oswestry Disability Index into Tamil with Cross Cultural Adaptation and Evaluation of Reliability and Validity§
Joshua Israel Vincent*, 1, Joy Christine MacDermid2, Ruby Grewal3, Vincent Prabhakaran Sekar4, Dinesh Balachandran4
1 University of Western Ontario, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, London, Ontario, Canada and Clinical Outcomes Research Laboratory, Roth and McFarlane Hand and Upper Limb Center, St
Joseph's Health care London, London, Ontario, Canada
2 McMaster University, School of Rehabilitation Science, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada and Co-Director of Clinical Outcomes Research Laboratory, Roth and McFarlane Hand and Upper Limb Center, St Joseph's Health care London,
London, Ontario, Canada
3 University of Western Ontario, Department of Surgery, London, Ontario, Canada and Co-Director of Clinical Outcomes Research Laboratory, Roth and McFarlane Hand and Upper Limb Center, St Joseph's Health care London,
London, Ontario, Canada
4 The Physiotherapy Center, Chennai, India
Prospective longitudinal validation study
To translate and cross-culturally adapt the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) to the Tamil language (ODI-T), and to evaluate its reliability and construct validity.
Summary of Background Data:
ODI is widely used as a disease specific questionnaire in back pain patients to evaluate pain and disability. A thorough literature search revealed that the Tamil version of the ODI has not been previously
The ODI was translated and cross-culturally adapted to the Tamil language according to established guidelines. 30 subjects (16 women and 14 men) with a mean age of 42.7 years (S.D. 13.6; Range 22 - 69) with low back pain were
recruited to assess the psychometric properties of the ODI-T Questionnaire. Patients completed the ODI-T, Roland-Morris disability questionnaire (RMDQ), VAS-pain and VAS-disability at baseline and 24-72 hours from the baseline visit.
The ODI-T displayed a high degree of internal consistency, with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.92. The test-retest reliability was high (n=30) with an ICC of 0.92 (95% CI, 0.84 to 0.96) and a mean re-test difference of 2.6 points lower
on re-test. The ODI-T scores exhibited a strong correlation with the RMDQ scores (r = 0.82) p<0.01, VAS-P (r = 0.78) p<0.01 and VAS-D (r = 0.81) p<0.01. Moderate to low correlations were observed between the ODI-T and lumbar ROM
(r = -0.27 to -0.53). All the hypotheses that were constructed apriori were supported.
The Tamil version of the ODI Questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool that can be used to measure
subjective outcomes of pain and disability in Tamil speaking patients with low back pain.
Keywords: : Bland and Altman plot, construct validity, internal consistency, low back pain, Oswestry disability index-Tamil, reliability, Roland-Morris disability questionnaire, VAS..
open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.5/) which permits unrestrictive use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
* Address correspondence to this author at the DB 222, Clinical Outcomes Research Laboratory, Roth and McFarlane Hand and Upper Limb center, St.
Joseph’s Healthcare London, 268 Grosvenor Street, London ON, N6A4L6, Canada; Tel: +1-519-694-6222; Fax: +1-519-646-6049;
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com§This study was approved by the Health Sciences Research Ethics Board (HSREB) of the University of Western Ontario in London, Ontario, Canada.