The growth of prostate cancer cells is driven by androgens. Thus, androgen deprivation, is one of the main treatment modalities in the management of prostate cancer. Historically, bilateral orchiectomy, which achieves 95% reduction of testosterone levels within 3 hours, was the only effective androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). In the 1980s, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists (LHRH-A) were introduced to reduce testosterone to castration levels. After the 1980s, nonsteroidal antiandrogens were developed in addition to steroidal antiandrogens. Since then, so-called maximum androgen blockade (MAB)/combined androgen blockade (CAB), which is a combination of surgical or medical castration and oral antiandrogens, has been suggested. More recently, novel treatment modalities have been developed, such as intermittent androgen suppression (IAS), nonsteroidal antiandrogen monotherapy, and alternative antiandrogen therapy after relapse from the initial MAB/CAB. ADT, whether surgical or medical, provides important quality of life (QOL) benefits in patients with advanced and metastatic prostate cancer. While the principle of the therapy has remained unchanged, the role, type and timing of these therapies is continuously evolving. This review will focus on the current medical and surgical options for ADT in advanced and metastatic prostate cancer, summarizing the results of several recent clinical trials and discuss their implications for clinical practice and for future research in this disease.