The objective of the presented research was to find the family determinants for undertaking the aggressor or victim role. The obtained results enabled the description of environmental (family-related) and developmental factors that have a bearing on the formation of perpetrator or victim identity. For that purpose, two groups of variables were identified. The first group included child-independent variables shaping the socio-economic status of the family (parents’ education, material status, number of siblings), while the second group pertained to the patterns of attachment to each parent. The sample consisted of 120 adolescents aged 13 to 20. The research tools were Mini – DIA, the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment – IPPA, and Buss-Perry aggression questionnaire. The results revealed a number of determinants for persons involved in perpetration or victimization, such as the type of relationship with parents (secure or insecure pattern), personal experience of being in the victim or aggressor role, and the level of hostility. The resulting “determinant bundles” may inform professionals in their work with adolescents in the field of prevention or therapy.