1 Institute of Coaching and Performance, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK
2 Exercise and Nutritional Genomics Research Centre, DNAFit Ltd, London, UK
Traditional exercise prescription is based on the assumption that exercise adaptation is predictable and standardised across
individuals. However, evidence has emerged in the past two decades demonstrating that large inter-individual variation exists
regarding the magnitude and direction of adaption following exercise.
The aim of this paper was to discuss the key factors influencing this personalized response to exercise in a narrative review format.
Genetic variation contributes significantly to the personalized training response, with specific polymorphisms associated with
differences in exercise adaptation. These polymorphisms exist in a number of pathways controlling exercise adaptation.
Environmental factors such as nutrition, psycho-emotional response, individual history and training programme design also modify
the inter-individual adaptation following training. Within the emerging field of epigenetics, DNA methylation, histone modifications
and non-coding RNA allow environmental and lifestyle factors to impact genetic expression. These epigenetic mechanisms are
themselves modified by genetic and non-genetic factors, illustrating the complex interplay between variables in determining the
adaptive response. Given that genetic factors are such a fundamental modulator of the inter-individual response to exercise, genetic
testing may provide a useful and affordable addition to those looking to maximise exercise adaption, including elite athletes.
However, there are ethical issues regarding the use of genetic tests, and further work is needed to provide evidence based guidelines
for their use.
There is considerable inter-individual variation in the adaptive response to exercise. Genetic assessments may provide an additional
layer of information allowing personalization of training programmes to an individual’s unique biology.