Table 2: Management of agitation episode by clinical setting (ER or AIU)ǂ.

ER AIU
Total, N 67 98
Non-pharmacological, n (%)
Verbal de-escalation
Physical restrains
Mechanical restrains
Isolation/seclusion

58 (86.6)
14 (20.9)
19 (28.4)
17 (25.4)

81 (82.7)
11 (11.2)
25 (25.5)
12 (12.2)
Time employed, median minutes (max, min)
Verbal de-escalation
Physical restrains
Mechanical restrains
Isolation/seclusion

30.0 (5-600)
12.5 (5-30)
150 (0-2400)
150 (20-4320)

25.0 (5-620)
10.0 (5-130)
265 (10-1055)
155 (30-885)
Pharmacological
First generation antipsychotics
Second generation antipsychotics
Benzodiazepines

27 (40.3)
22 (32.8)
38 (56.7)

26 (26.5)
29 (29.6)
48 (49.0)

ǂ Data from the 165 episodes of acute agitation that were reported by the patients signing the informed consent form.
ER: Emergency Room; AIU: Acute Inpatient Unit

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