The Open Civil Engineering Journal




ISSN: 1874-1495 ― Volume 14, 2020
SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

Value Management Practices in Construction Industry: An Analytical Review



Abdullah Alshehri1, *
1 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, Majmmah University, Al Majma'ah, Saudi Arabia

Abstract

Background:

Every building project needs a plan for it to optimize value and minimize cost for better profitability. Currently, in the construction industry around the world, not all stakeholders are aware of value management and its benefits.

Aim:

This review aims to explore the awareness level of value management among all players in the construction industries. Also, to raise dust on the significance of applying value management within the construction workplace.

Objective:

The objective was explored using research and review papers from 30 studies for 18-years (2000-2018).

Methods:

Value management is essential at the briefing stage, specifically in the contractor's health and safety performance, the design process, cost and quality, contract strategy, and performance of time.

Results:

Results indicated that the level of awareness and implementation of value management varies from region to region and country to country. Some implementation barriers include lack of knowledge and awareness, no standard method of problem-solving, lack of value management practices by contractors, the concept is new in many regions, contractors not willing to implement VM fully during projects, and lack of qualified personnel to adopt VM. From this review, some of the benefits of adopting VM include maximizing productivity, better sustainability, and expected targets achieved within a reasonable time.

Conclusion:

In conclusion, the construction industry needs to put forth efforts to maximize the awareness and applications of value management to enhance project outcomes. The study is valuable for all the value management professionals involved with construction, in general, to try and incorporate it into their work ethics for better productivity.

Keywords: Awareness, Application, Systematic literature review, Value management. Maximizing productivity, Construction industry.


Article Information


Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2020
Volume: 14
First Page: 10
Last Page: 19
Publisher Id: TOCIEJ-14-10
DOI: 10.2174/1874149502014010010

Article History:

Received Date: 07/11/2019
Revision Received Date: 10/01/2020
Acceptance Date: 31/01/2020
Electronic publication date: 20/03/2020

© 2020 Abdullah Alshehri

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, Majmmah University, Al Majma'ah, Saudi Arabia; Tel: +966-6404-2531;
E-mail: A.M.ALSHEHRI@MU.EDU.SA






1. INTRODUCTION

The growth of economic sectors within a country depends on the significant contribution of the construction industry. This industry is responsible for physical and infrastructure development that includes the building of roads, bridges, towers, as well as residential houses. Every sector, somehow, needs the construction industry to provide an area for different operations [1N.S. Lop, M.A.M. Apandi, I.F.M. Kamar, N.M. Salleh, S. Mamter, and N.A.M. Hamdan, "Identifying the level of awareness on value management practice amongst construction developers", MATEC Web of Conferences, vol. 15, p. 5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/matecconf/20141501029]
]. For instance, the construction industry operates the building of company offices, premises, and factories.

It also escalates the GDP of a country where the global construction projects in 2017 reached a figure of $17140 billion, and forecast an expected increase to $15.5 trillion by 2030 [2G.C. Perspectives, and O. Economics, Global Construction 2030: A Global Forecast for the Construction Industry to 2030., Global Construction Perspectives and Oxford Economics: London, UK, .]. The overall construction project is expected to increase at an average percentage of 4.3%. These figures increase stresses on the integration of value management practices, which reinforces innovation, novelty as well as advancement into the existing construction practices [3A.E. Oke, and C.O. Aigbavboa, Sustainable Value Management for Construction Projects., Springer. South Afria: Switzerland, .
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-54151-8]
]. Though the concept has existed for over a century, its application has remained confined. Luvara, & Mwemezi [4V.G. Luvara, and B. Mwemezi, "Obstacles against value management practice in building projects of dar es salaam tanzania", Int. J. Constr. Eng. Manage., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 13-21.] stated its successful application among US public construction projects. The application of the value management function has proven to be useful to attain the construction objectives, i.e., to enhance the project design, construction, along with cost-effectiveness [5A. Ranesh, G. Zillante, and N. Chileshe, "Towards the integration of risk and value management", Aus. J. Constr. Econ. Build-Conf Ser., no. 2, pp. 43-51.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.5130/ajceb-cs.v1i2.3165]
].

Value management is a structured analytical process, which tends to develop innovative holistic solutions for intricate issues [6E.O.E. Nnadi, and A. Ezemerihe, "Value management as an efficient risk management tool", Int. Jo. Adv. Multidiscip. Eng. Sci., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 1-6.]. It aims for the best value through a wide range of design and construction processes to fulfill the perceived needs of its clients [1N.S. Lop, M.A.M. Apandi, I.F.M. Kamar, N.M. Salleh, S. Mamter, and N.A.M. Hamdan, "Identifying the level of awareness on value management practice amongst construction developers", MATEC Web of Conferences, vol. 15, p. 5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/matecconf/20141501029]
]. The functions of value management ensure that projects achieved by construction companies attain the value for their products without ignoring their clients’ needs. It also resolves the associated constraints on expenditure as well as a restriction for mitigating the additional cost while sustaining the project quality as well as reliability [7C. Aigbavboa, A. Oke, and S. Mojele, "Construction projects and stakeholders", Sustainable Value Management for Construction Projects, pp. 49-73.]. Recent work by Noor et al. [8N.F.M. Noor, S.N. Kamruzzaman, and N.A. Ghaffar, "Sustainability concern in value management: A study on government’s building project", Int. J. Curr. Res. Acad. Rev., vol. 2, pp. 72-83.] demonstrated the effectiveness of value management in the decision making of construction industry agents.

Application of value management is not satisfactory in most of the regions, even though value management in terms of planning, cost management, conflict management, and dispute resolution has been in the construction industry for a long time. Moreover, a lack of awareness regarding value management is a significant reason for the failure of applying value management within the construction industry [9S.Y. Kim, Y.S. Lee, and V.T. Nguyen, "Barriers to applying value management in the vietnamese construction industry", J. Constr. Dev. Countries., vol. 21, no. 2, p. 55m.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.21315/jcdc2016.21.2.4]
]. The main aim of implementing value management is to provide all necessary functions to the industry at the lowest cost, which is consistent with the required levels of product quality and performance of the industry. Ong [10H.T. Ong, Quality and value management in construction ‘achieving excellence through Value-Managed Quality System (VMQS)., Instituition Surveyor Malaysia, .] stated that developed countries like UK, USA, Australia widely practice value management; whereas, countries like Saudi Arabia and Malaysia lacked the practice of value management due to lack of awareness of its existence and various applications.

The level of awareness among employees of the construction industry remains unidentified, and the implementation of value management by the construction companies was still at an elementary stage [11A. Jaapar, and J.V. Torrence, "Contribution of value management to the malaysian construction industry: A new insight", Proceeding of the International Conference of Construction Industry, West Sumatera, pp. 1-9.]. Moreover, the stakeholders need to analyze the level of acceptance and impact of value management as they are exposed to buildability and fast technology changes. Value management mainly focuses on the functioning and value of money; rather than a reduction in the overall cost [1N.S. Lop, M.A.M. Apandi, I.F.M. Kamar, N.M. Salleh, S. Mamter, and N.A.M. Hamdan, "Identifying the level of awareness on value management practice amongst construction developers", MATEC Web of Conferences, vol. 15, p. 5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/matecconf/20141501029]
]. It proceeds in an innovative way to collaborate and achieve the needs of clients and stakeholders. Therefore, the present study reviewed and analyzed the level of awareness of value management practices in the construction industry globally.

2. RESEARCH METHODS

This study systematically reviewed the significance of value management in the construction industry based on the level of awareness and its application to attain the above objectives research studies, including review articles, original articles, cross-sectional studies, case studies, and field studies, which discusses the level of awareness and application of value management in construction industries globally, fulfilling the inclusion criteria for the selection of studies. Also, studies conducted between the period of 2000-2018 were considered. However, studies were excluded based on abstract inappropriate or incomplete findings, literature reviews, and duplications.

Fig. (1)
The search strategy of a systematic review.


Several databases and information sources were used to identify and collect articles, which resulted in the provision of a different number of articles. For instance, Google Scholar (254 articles), EBSCO (16 articles), ScienceDirect (12 articles), Emerald (23 articles), JSTOR (34 articles), Semantic Scholar (15 articles), and Scopus (9 articles) were used to collect the articles (Fig. 1). All the studies were collected within two weeks, from 21st February to 5th March 2018. The search process on databases was performed using different keywords, like, Value management, challenges, barriers, implementation, importance, OR construction industry.

3. ANALYSIS OF RESULTS

A total of 30 studies was included in this systematic literature review for exploring the level of awareness and application of value management during the period 2000-2018. The classification of these studies is held on a random basis, as shown in Fig. (2).

A comprehensive review of studies has been presented in Table 1, shedding the crucial elements in terms of awareness level and application adoption in the construction industry.

Value management has been a growing paradigm around the world that is responsible for concentrating continuous improvement of value that is developed by the customers [29O.I. Othman, Application of value management at design stage: A case study (identifying the awareness level),, Doctoral dissertation, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, .]. Commonly it is developed and acknowledged similar to an important device, which is capable of controlling the development task [38R.C. Ellis, G.D. Wood, and D.A. Keel, "Value management practices of leading uk cost consultants", Construct. Manag. Econ., vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 483-493.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01446190500040711]
]. There is a lot of variation in application of value management and results are obtained to the time within resolution procedure. It helps in the identification of innovative techniques and develops strategies to meet service requirements [9S.Y. Kim, Y.S. Lee, and V.T. Nguyen, "Barriers to applying value management in the vietnamese construction industry", J. Constr. Dev. Countries., vol. 21, no. 2, p. 55m.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.21315/jcdc2016.21.2.4]
]. At the initial phase, a project can be considered as a successful one if it tends to meet the identified goals and objectives, and achieve its technical performance. The technical performance needs to be achieved according to the planned schedule and agreed costs [39X. Meng, and B. Gallagher, "The impact of incentive mechanisms on project performance", Int. J. Proj. Manag., vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 352-362.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijproman.2011.08.006]
].

Keng and Shahdan [32T.C. Keng, and N. Shahdan, "The application of Earned Value Management (EVM) in construction project management", J Tech Manag Bus, vol. 2, no. 2, .] investigated the level of awareness regarding value management among construction practitioners. The results showed a low level of awareness among the key players in the construction industry of Malaysia. Although the key workers in the construction industry tend to apply the concepts of value management in construction projects, their application is not intensive. Therefore, great efforts are needed to enhance the level of application of value management in the construction industry [32T.C. Keng, and N. Shahdan, "The application of Earned Value Management (EVM) in construction project management", J Tech Manag Bus, vol. 2, no. 2, .]. Value management is likely to be earned through a method that quantifies the technical performance of an ongoing project and also monitors the physical project progress [40A. De Marco, and T. Narbaev, "Earned value-based performance monitoring of facility construction projects", J. Facil. Manage., vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 69-80.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/14725961311301475]
] . It is also necessary to identify factors that hinder the application of value management in the construction industry.

Kim et al. [9S.Y. Kim, Y.S. Lee, and V.T. Nguyen, "Barriers to applying value management in the vietnamese construction industry", J. Constr. Dev. Countries., vol. 21, no. 2, p. 55m.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.21315/jcdc2016.21.2.4]
] identified the hindering factors that would help the practitioners in assessing barriers in the application of value management. The study has applied a factor analysis method to investigate the correlation impact of those factors. The results depicted four critical components that represent hindrance factors. The components include [9S.Y. Kim, Y.S. Lee, and V.T. Nguyen, "Barriers to applying value management in the vietnamese construction industry", J. Constr. Dev. Countries., vol. 21, no. 2, p. 55m.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.21315/jcdc2016.21.2.4]
];

  • Lack of qualified personnel implementing value management
  • Inheriting difficulties in the workshop of value management
  • Lack of value management application documents
  • Low level of awareness regarding the existence of value management
Fig. (2)
Studies classification.


Table 1
Studies indicating level of awareness and application of value management.


3.1. Awareness and Application of Value Management (2000-2005)

The awareness and the application of value management have not been much seen during 2000-2005. However, studies in this era have revealed that there were hindrance factors that restrict the application of value management in the construction industry. Similarly, Hiley and Gopsill [12A. Hiley, and G. Gopsill, "The implementation of value management as a design management tool in the uk construction industry", Management, vol. 2, pp. 657-666.] emphasized that the awareness advantages of value management in the UK, even though its ability throughout the industry has not been actualized. The efficiency of the value management was conducted through a questionnaire which specifically focused on the importance of construction design in value management, value management as a useful design management tool, the correct phase for implementing value management in construction projects, along with the estimates for current practices of value management in the construction industry. The results of the study indicated cost-effectiveness as a significant benefit behind the implementation of value management.

The study of Daddow et al. [18T. Daddow, and M. Skitmore, "Value management in practice: An interview survey", Aus. J. Constr. Econ. Build., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 11-18.] asserted that the experiences of stakeholders and contractors are essential in contributing to the management and identification of the risks associated with projecting delivery in Australia. Team attributes, competent knowledge, personal acceptance and implementation were the main attributes for individual acceptance of value management.

Thomson and Austin [13D.S. Thomson, and S.A. Austin, "Construction value management revisited: The designer’s role", Proceeding of Conference, .] have examined the importance of value-adding tools, allowing project managers enough accurateness to structure design activity associated with the technical design to stakeholder values. The adoption of validation exercises confirms the supporting role of the toolbox as a web-based resource. However, studies conducted in the given duration indicated a significantly low level of knowledge regarding value management (Al-Hajj & Rizkallah [15A. Al-Hajj, and K. Rizkallah, “Earned value in the UAE construction industry: Awareness efficiency and areas of improvement”. Conference: CIB W078., At Beirut: Lebanon, .]; Daddow, Therese & Skitmore [18T. Daddow, and M. Skitmore, "Value management in practice: An interview survey", Aus. J. Constr. Econ. Build., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 11-18.]; Perera & Karunasena [17S. Perera, and G. Karunasena, "Application of value management in the construction industry of Sri Lanka", Value Manager, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 4-8.]; Hiley & Gopsill [12A. Hiley, and G. Gopsill, "The implementation of value management as a design management tool in the uk construction industry", Management, vol. 2, pp. 657-666.]). Besides, significant indicators of value management were time, cost, and quality of work (Perera & Karunasena [21S. Perera, G. Karunasena, and K. Selvadurai, "Application of value management in construction", Built. Environ. Sri Lanka, vol. 4, no. 1, .
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4038/besl.v4i1.7647]
],).

3.2. Awareness and Application of Value Management (2006-2010)

Jaapar et al. [41A. Jaapar, I.R. Endut, N.A.A. Bari, and R. Takim, "The impact of value management implementation in malaysia", J. Sustain. Dev., vol. 2, no. 2, p. 210.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/jsd.v2n2p210]
] asserted that evolution in value management affects the construction projects of the Malaysian industry. The construction industry should ensure the implementation of value management to have better involvement in the projects. Similarly, Abidin [22N.Z. Abidin, "Sustainable construction in Malaysia–Developers’ awareness", World Acad. Sci. Eng. Technol., vol. 53, pp. 807-814.] indicated that contractors were aware of the value management techniques, and they have put forth little efforts to implement in the construction industries. Coetzee [23C.E.L. Coetzee, Value management in the construction industry: What does it entail and is it a worthwhile practice, Bachelor degree dissertation, University of Pretoria: South Africa, .] has asserted that the value management’s benefits and costs summed up alongside each other, and the significance of value management is to be integrated into the curriculum of courses associated with the environmental industry. Research study by Al-Yami [24A.M. Al-Yami, An integrated approach to value management and sustainable construction during strategic briefing in saudi construction projects., Doctoral dissertation, Loughborough University: UK, .] is one of the influential studies showing immense awareness of value management in the construction industry. The research findings have emphasized that value management could be of significant potential to promote and establish sustainable principles and to enhance awareness within the construction industry.

The given studies indicated that the concept of value management had not been practiced fully (Jaapar et al. [41A. Jaapar, I.R. Endut, N.A.A. Bari, and R. Takim, "The impact of value management implementation in malaysia", J. Sustain. Dev., vol. 2, no. 2, p. 210.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/jsd.v2n2p210]
]; Abidin [22N.Z. Abidin, "Sustainable construction in Malaysia–Developers’ awareness", World Acad. Sci. Eng. Technol., vol. 53, pp. 807-814.]; Coetzee [23C.E.L. Coetzee, Value management in the construction industry: What does it entail and is it a worthwhile practice, Bachelor degree dissertation, University of Pretoria: South Africa, .]; Noor, Kamruzzaman & Ghaffar [8N.F.M. Noor, S.N. Kamruzzaman, and N.A. Ghaffar, "Sustainability concern in value management: A study on government’s building project", Int. J. Curr. Res. Acad. Rev., vol. 2, pp. 72-83.],), though employees were aware of the benefits associated to value management. However, the common indicators include; knowledge, complex internal relationships, lack of correct decision-making practices [25B.A. Kolo, and A.D. Ibrahim, "Value management: How adoptable is it in the Nigerian construction industry?", Conference Proceedings of West Africa Built Environment, pp. 653-663.] that reflect the need for implementing value management practices.

3.3. Awareness and Application of Value Management (2011-2015)

The lack of knowledge regarding the value management among different employees of the construction industry is still significant. However, perceptions of contractors towards value management were granted significant value in the overall implementation [28N.A. Maznan, A. Jaapar, N.A.A. Bari, and M. Zawawi, "Value management: Private sector’s perception", Procedia Soc. Behav. Sci., vol. 50, pp. 383-391.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.08.043]
]. Keng and Shahdan [32T.C. Keng, and N. Shahdan, "The application of Earned Value Management (EVM) in construction project management", J Tech Manag Bus, vol. 2, no. 2, .] asserted that the level of awareness and application should be increased among stakeholders and contractors in the construction industry. Mesbah [31M. Mesbah, "Value management for construction projects via an expert system framework", Doctoral dissertation, Eastern Mediterranean University, .] demonstrated that value management was an active, structured, and analytical approach procedure that signifies to expand the project values by questioning for specific functions of a project and then reviewing and enhancing them. Othman [29O.I. Othman, Application of value management at design stage: A case study (identifying the awareness level),, Doctoral dissertation, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, .] argued that value management was necessary at the briefing stage, specifically in the contractor’s health and safety performance, the design process, cost and quality, contract strategy, and performance of time.

The substantial awareness of value management is reported in the study of Hamid et al. [42S.H.A. Hamid, R. Takim, and A.H. Nawawi, "An Integrated Value Management (IVM) for construction projects in malaysia", In Business, Engineering and Industrial Applications (ISBEIA), pp. 421-425.] in the Malaysian industry. The study presented an integrated model of value management, where different components of value engineering, risk management, and partnering were assimilated together. It also stated that the integration of these components assists in the provisioning of productive outcomes, which not only improve the cost-effectiveness but also cater the potential concerns of stakeholders related to the management of the uncertainty and formation of collaborative work practices.

Whyte and Cammarano [30A. Whyte, and C. Cammarano, "Value management in infrastructure projects in western australia: Techniques and staging", In Proceedings of the 28th Annual ARCOM Conference, ARCOM, Association of Researchers in Construction Management, pp. 797-806.] demonstrated that the concept of value management was well-aware among engineers and stakeholders. The benefits of value management have entirely addressed the issues of project life-cycle. Karim et al. [43S.B.A. Karim, A.R. Rabi’atul’Adawiyah, M. S. M. Danuri, and O. Mohamed, "Developing the value management maturity model (VM3©)", J. Design. Built. Environ., vol. 14, no. 1, .] have developed the value management maturity model based on five levels of maturity, including awareness, repeatable, defined, managed, and optimized. The research findings argued the importance of value management by identifying awareness, knowledge, and benefits among employees. It was critically assessed that the level of awareness among employees was moderate regarding the practices of value management in the construction industry. It clearly shows the need for an emphasis on value management in the context of the awareness level of employees within the construction industry. The implementation of value management in the construction industry is to appraise the success of maturity levels, based on the standards and capability.

Yong and Mustaffa [44Y.C. Yong, and N.E. Mustaffa, "Analysis of factors critical to construction project success in malaysia", Eng. Construct. Architect. Manag., vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 543-556.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09699981211259612]
] found that low application of value management was due to the associated human factors, which could enhance its application practices as well as project success ratio. The research stated effective leadership and team members as the primary catalyst, which could reinforce the strategic vision of the company and paved the path for the collaborative efforts for improving communication. Aghimien and Oke [45D.O. Aghimien, and A.E. Oke, "Application of value management to selected construction projects in Nigeria", Developing Country Studies, vol. 5, no. 17, pp. 8-14.] examined the impact of value management practice on building projects. The study asserted that the implementation of value management in construction projects was essential to enhance value for sponsors, project clients, and owners. In particular, process and workmen time, and cost reduction were two crucial benefits of value management.

Five hindering blocks are also demonstrated in the research of Fard et al., [46A.B. Fard, K.G. Rad, P.G.P. Sabet, and H. Aadal, "Evaluating effective factors on value engineering implementation in the context of iran", J. Basic Appl. Sci. Res., vol. 3, no. 10, pp. 430-436.], which impact the application of value management in the construction industry. The research highlighted negative attitude and habitual thinking, outdated criteria and specifications, the absence of local guidelines and information, lack of knowledge and practices, and alterations in the requirement of the client or owner as of the significant source of a hindrance, which could lead to its increased application. Whereas, in the context of the Nigerian industry, Aduze [47O.C. Aduze, "A study of the prospects and challenges of value engineering in construction projects in delta and edo states of nigeria", MSc dissertation, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, .] listed a lack of governmental regulation, negative client reception, and deficiency of value management as the impeding factors for its application. Further, Akpan et al. [48E. Akpan, B. Amade, S. Okangba, and C. Ekweozor, "Constructability practice and project delivery processes in the nigerian construction industry", J. build. Perf., (JBP)., vol. 5, no. 1, .], to value management, asserted inadequate knowledge, and non-execution of the construction principles as the primary source, which results in delays cost overrun and abandonment in the construction projects.

Considering the studies listed in Table 1 above, the leading indicators of value management include the health and safety of contractors, cost and quality controls, contract strategy, consumer satisfaction. (Perera, Hayles & Kerlin [26S. Perera, C.S. Hayles, and S. Kerlin, "An analysis of value management in practice: The case of Northern Ireland’s construction industry", J Financ Manage. Prop Constr, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 94-110.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/13664381111153097]
]; Othman [29O.I. Othman, Application of value management at design stage: A case study (identifying the awareness level),, Doctoral dissertation, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, .]; Whyte & Cammarano [30A. Whyte, and C. Cammarano, "Value management in infrastructure projects in western australia: Techniques and staging", In Proceedings of the 28th Annual ARCOM Conference, ARCOM, Association of Researchers in Construction Management, pp. 797-806.],). The overall findings of the studies are consistent in indicating that the main obstacle behind the low implementation of value management is the lack of knowledge and awareness among different employees working in the construction industry (Maznan et al. [28N.A. Maznan, A. Jaapar, N.A.A. Bari, and M. Zawawi, "Value management: Private sector’s perception", Procedia Soc. Behav. Sci., vol. 50, pp. 383-391.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.08.043]
]; Keng & Shahdan [32T.C. Keng, and N. Shahdan, "The application of Earned Value Management (EVM) in construction project management", J Tech Manag Bus, vol. 2, no. 2, .]; Oke & Ogunsemi [27A.E. Oke, and D.R. Ogunsemi, "Value management in the nigerian construction industry: Militating factors and the perceived benefits", Proceeding of the Second International Conference on Advances in Engineering and Technology, vol. 30, pp. 353-359.],).

3.4. Awareness and Application of Value Management (2016-2018)

Luvara & Mwemezi [2004] emphasized that efforts should be made to create awareness of value management in the industry and to reinforce contract conditions. Kim et al. [9S.Y. Kim, Y.S. Lee, and V.T. Nguyen, "Barriers to applying value management in the vietnamese construction industry", J. Constr. Dev. Countries., vol. 21, no. 2, p. 55m.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.21315/jcdc2016.21.2.4]
] indicated that lack of awareness, lack of qualified personnel to adopt value management, inherent complexities with value management workshops, and lack of value management application documents were major hindrance factors. Also, the lack of emphasis on the application of the value management principles by the state itself was recognized as the source resulting in poor performance of the Nigerian construction projects. Rane and Attarde [49N.L. Rane, and P.M. Attarde, "Application of value engineering in construction projects", Int. J. Eng. Manage. Res., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 25-29.] focused on new approaches, materials, and methods implemented in the construction industry in terms of process, cost, time, feasibility, and quality. The study presented that the required functions in the construction industry were focused mostly on value engineering. Value management assists in reducing or mitigating time, unnecessary cost, and wastage of material, enhancing customer values.

Dandage et al. [50R.V. Dandage, S.S. Mantha, S.B. Rane, and V. Bhoola, "Analysis of interactions among barriers in project risk management", J. Ind. Eng. Int., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 153-169.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40092-017-0215-9]
] highlighted that a lack of support from the top management, inadequate training, and ineffective address on the cultural difference were the factors, which made the value management application difficult. Whereas, Hatem et al. [51W.A. Hatem, A.M. Abd, and N.N. Abbas, "Barriers of adoption building information modeling (bim) in construction projects of iraq", Eng. J. (N.Y.), vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 59-81.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4186/ej.2018.22.2.59]
] stated the lack of input, poor knowledge of its benefit as well as resistance to changing dynamics as the stimulators for hindering the application of value management. Similarly, the findings by Durdyev et al. [52S. Durdyev, E.K. Zavadskas, D. Thurnell, A. Banaitis, and A. Ihtiyar, "Sustainable construction industry in cambodia: Awareness, drivers and barriers", Sustainability, vol. 10, no. 2, .
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/su10020392]
] highlighted that the application of the value management suffered from poor adoption capabilities of the construction professions, lack of expertise, and ineffectiveness towards the application of the new sustainable technologies.

Studies conducted between 2016-2018 provided some additional barriers to the implementation of value management. These factors include; lack of risk-taking ability, lack of knowledge and expertise, lack of qualified personnel to adopt value management, implementation of limited value management strategies, and lack of trained value managers, which create obstacles in the successful implementation of value management process (Ekanayake et al. 2018; Morad and El-Sayeg [36M. Ncube, and P. D. Rwelamila, "Value management expertise in the South African construction industry: A case study of Gauteng", Mega J Business Res, vol. 2017, no. 1, .]; Kim, Lee & Nguyen [9S.Y. Kim, Y.S. Lee, and V.T. Nguyen, "Barriers to applying value management in the vietnamese construction industry", J. Constr. Dev. Countries., vol. 21, no. 2, p. 55m.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.21315/jcdc2016.21.2.4]
],).

4. IMPLICATIONS

Based on the findings of literary studies, the study suggests conducting workshops and seminars, which can help enrich the knowledge of the practitioners, improving awareness, and foster a positive impact on the construction industry projects. The effective value management practices are suggested to improve the cost and time effectiveness based on the timely decisions made. Moreover, the study also suggests introducing value management undergraduate programs with the universities, which offer engineering and construction-related courses. Besides, the research also recommends the integration of the clause within the construction projects which promote the value-based practices. The inclusion of the clause promotes the contractors to bring positive changes in their practices, which not only save cost but also improves collaborative actions. This will reinforce the idea that all the project members play a substantial role in the achievement of its objective and emphasizing the need to share their ideas for escalating the overall project output. Also, recruiting competent value managers is suggested.

CONCLUSION

The research findings identified the level of awareness among the construction industry regarding value management practices. A holistic, systematic review analysis stated the findings of previous studies to investigate the level of awareness towards value management practice. The findings suggested that the inclusion of effective value management programs will assist in improving the construction of professional knowledge. From an academic perspective, the study has provided substantial insights into its impeding factors and general practices, which affect its application. Inadequate knowledge is recognized as a major factor. The level of awareness in the construction industries was average; however, they face specific barriers for its implementation. The study contributes by implying that an education program for the engineering and construction projects needs to integrate with value management aspects for improving the project managers and stakeholder management in construction. Future studies need to be conducted on the evaluation of barriers and several facilitating factors to implement and practice value management within the construction industry.

Research study limitations include a holistic approach to value management awareness and its application throughout the construction industry. Future studies may include more variables and concentrate on a particular region for understanding its practices and overcoming any hindering factors for construction project value management. Different research approaches can further be implemented, such as quantitative, which can provide more valuable results. Moreover, the perspective of the construction industry personnel’ can also be evaluated, which can provide more meaningful insights on the application difficulties faced on-site and expanding the knowledge horizon of the construction industry value management. The study is valuable for all the value management professionals involved with construction in general.

CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION

Not applicable.

STANDARDS OF REPORTING

PRISMA Guideline and methodology were followed.

FUNDING

None.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

The author declares no conflict of interest, financial or otherwise.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The author is very thankful to all associated personnel in references that contributed to/for this research.

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