Table 1: Study Characteristics

Study Hospital ICU Mortality Change Average Length of Stay(LOS) Change
Rosenfeld et al. 2000 [21]. A ten-bed surgical ICU in at Johns Hopkins Medical Institution. Severity-adjusted Mortality rate in
- ICU is decreased by 46%
- Hospital by 30%
ICU length of stay decreased by 30%
Breslow et al. 2004 [15]. Sentara (VA) 26.4% reduction at the end of first year Observed 5.6 to 4.8 days decrease in LOS
Shaffer J, et al. 2005 [26]. Health First
(Integrated network on Floridas East Coast)
Associated with significant decrease in mortality rate
Odd ratio of pre to post is 0.72
Dickhaus D., 2006 [27]. Community Hospital in Weston, WI and Jefferson City hospital A decrease in mortality is observed 17% decrease in LOS resulted.
Ikeda D, et al. 2006 [28]. Sutter health, Sacramento. Actual ICU mortality rate reduced from 40.07% to 18.86%. Estimated of 56 lives were saved over 30-months period
Young B, 2006 [29]. Parkview Hospital, Fort Wayne Cardiac arrest decline from 9 months prior average of 38% to 28%
Gracias et al. 2007 [12]. Surgical intensive care units (SICU) at Pennsylvania Health System Mortality rate decrease from 5.5% to 2.6%.
Howell G. et al. 2007 [30]. Saint Lukes
Health System
ICU mortality went
from 1.0 to 0.68,
Hospital mortality from 0.95 to 0.77,
ICU LOS from 1.18 to 0.96 and hospital LOS from 1.09 to 0.84.
Kohl et al. 2007 [9]. University of Pennsylvania Health System Reduction in ICU mortality rate from 8.4% to 3.1%. (63%)
Hospital mortality rate reduced from 11.1% to 6%. (46%).
Decreased between 3.7-4.4 days in average.
Kohl B., 2007 [31]. University of Pennsylvania health institute 10% reduction in LOS in ICU.
20% reduction in Floor stay.
(cost saving of $ 700,000 to 2.850,000)
Mora A., 2007 [32]. The University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Majority of residents perceived eICU improves patient care (82.3%) and 66.7% of residents expressed a desire to have remote Telemonitoring involved in the care of their patients.
Rincon T., 2007 [33]. The Bay Area Sacramento A total estimated savings of $132,859 for 2007.
Rincon T, et al. 2007 [34]. Sutter health. Sacramento Accurate sepsis identification can be achieved from eICU,
improved sepsis bundle compliance and reduced mortality observed after using eICU
Zawada E.,2007 [35].  Avera Health System Annual reduction in 4146 ICU days and 572 hospital days.
Coletti C., 2008 [36]. Christiana CareHealth System, Newark 77% of surveyed residents reported that the eICU associated with improved patient safety.
Howell G, et al. 2008 [37]. University of Missouri,
Kansas City.
Both ICU and hospital mortality improved. Severity adjusted ICU LOS improved from 0.84 to 0.03.
Severity adjusted hospital LOS improved from 0.97 to 0.64.
The New England Healthcare Institute, 2008 [13]. University of
Massachusetts Memorial Medical Center
209 lives were saved in 2007 Hospital length of stay reduced by 4 days on average.
Cost saving averaged $5000 per patient
Goran SF., et al., 2008 [8]. Maine Medical Center Estimate of 5-20% reduction in mortality rate. For an estimated 2000 adult ICU admissions/year, 100 additional patients per year survive
Zawada E., 2008 [11]. Rural center close to Avera Heath system 160 patients were prevented from transfer to a tertiary
hospital for a savings of $1,202,379
Thomas, E., et al. 2009 [17]. Non-profit health system of gulf coast region Reduction in mortality by 1.4%-2.1% No significant differences in LOS pre and post Tele-ICU
Zawada et al. 2009 [38]. Conducted in Avera Health System (One large tertiary hospital, three rural hospitals, two community hospitals and 9 critical care centers Adjusted mortality rate range between unchanged and 29% reduction. LOS reduction ranged from 45% to 22.5%. (9 sites)
Morrison et al. 2010 [15]. two community hospitals in the metropolitan Chicago area No significant effect on ICU/non-ICU/total mortality No effect on LOS.
Lilly, C., et al. 2011 [19]. University of Massachusetts 2.1% decrease 1.9 days decrease
Young, L., et al. 2011 [20]. Review Odds ratio for pooled data was 0.80 which shows reduction 1.26 days decrease
Willmitch, B., et al. 2012 [16]. South Florida 0.55 day decrease