The Open Ophthalmology Journal




ISSN: 1874-3641 ― Volume 14, 2020

Transient Cystoid Macular Oedema in Multiple Choroidal Naevi



Kimia Ziahosseini* , Ahmed Kamal
Department of Ophthalmology, Aintree University Hospital, Liverpool, Longmoor Lane, L9 7AL, UK

Abstract

Choroidal Naevi are generally thought to be trivial. However, sometimes they cause visual loss, visual filed defect and rarely transform into malignant melanoma. We report the first case of unilateral numerous choroidal naevi in a healthy female associated with transient cystoid macular oedema and postulate about its pathogenesis.

Keywords: Choroidal naevus, macular oedema, cystoid macular oedema.


Article Information


Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2013
Volume: 7
First Page: 24
Last Page: 25
Publisher Id: TOOPHTJ-7-24
DOI: 10.2174/1874364101307010024

Article History:

Received Date: 26/11/2012
Revision Received Date: 23/1/2013
Acceptance Date: 28/1/2013
Electronic publication date: 5 /4/2013
Collection year: 2013

© Ziahosseini and Kamal; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.


* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Ophthalmology, Aintree University Hospital, Liverpool, Longmoor Lane, L9 7AL, UK; Tel: 0151 529 0146; Fax: 0151 529 0139; E-mail: kim.z@doctors.org.uk





CASE-REPORT

A 48-year-old female presented with three weeks history of left eye blurred vision. She had no previous ophthalmic or medical problems and was not on any medications. Visual acuity (VA) at presentation was 6/5 right and 6/9 left eye. External ocular and anterior segment examination was normal. Dilated funduscopy of left eye showed numerous flat, pigmented choroidal lesions with indistinct border suggestive of choroidal naevi in the posterior pole and inferior retina with cystoid macular oedema (CMO) (Fig. 1). Fluorescein angiography confirmed CMO with retinal capillary leakage (Fig. 2). Right eye was normal. Examination and investigations by a physician to exclude systemic malignancy were normal. Laboratory tests and electrodiagnostic tests were normal. Six months later, CMO resolved spontaneously and VA improved to 6/5. Six years later, She remains well, choroidal naevi are unchanged and VA is 6/5 OU.

Fig. (1)

Coluor fundus photograph of left eye showing numerous choroidal naevi.



Fig. (2)

Right; shows retinal capillary leakage on fluorescein angiography of the left eye. Left; shows late phase fluorescein angiography with CMO.



Fig. (3)

Top; Stratus OCT through fovea shows CMO. Bottom; HRA OCT through fovea showing absence of RPE/photoreceptor layers irregularities following resolution of CMO.



DISCUSSION

CMO represents the common final pathway of a heterogenous group of processes. The tight junctions between retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE) and retinal capillary endothelial cells can be disturbed in disease process and by cytokines [1Funatsu H, Yamashita H, Ikeda T, et al. Vitreous levels of interleukin-6 and vascular endothelial growth factor are related to diabetic macular edema Ophthalmology 2003; 110: 690-.].

Choroidal naevi can induce histologic changes in their neighbouring tissues such as narrowing or complete obliteration of the choriocapillaris, degeneration or proliferation of RPE and photoreceptors disturbances [2Naumann G, Yanoff M, Zimmerman L. Histogenesis of malignant melanomas of the uvea histopathologic characteristics of nevi of the choroid and ciliary body Arch Ophthalmol 1966; 6: 784-96.]. Shield et al. have reported on the presence of retinal oedema overlying a choroidal naevus with associated RPE/choriocapillaris irregularities in 15% of their patients when examined with Optical coherence tomography (OCT) [3Shields C L, Mashayekhi A, Materin MA, et al. Optical coherence tomography of choroidal nevus in 120 patients Retina 2005; 25(3 ): 243-52.].

Multiplicity of choroidal naevi to this extent is unusual. Shield et al. reported a maximum of 10 naevi in less than 1% of their 3422 studied eyes [4Shields CL, Furuta M, Mashayekhi A, et al. Clinical spectrum of choroidal nevi based on age at presentation in 3422 consecutive eyes Ophthalmology 2008; 115(3 ): 546-2.].

Multiple naevus-like lesions as a result of proliferation of benign melanocytes in the outer choroid occur in bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation. It is a very rare paraneoplastic syndrome occurring in elderly patients with advanced systemic malignancy [5Gass J, Geiser R, Wilkinson C, et al. Bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation in patients with occult carcinoma Arch Ophthalmol 1990; 108: 527-33.]. This case's clinical picture and outcome are clearly different from this condition.

In this patient, choroidal naevi were scattered in the parafoveal and peripheral retina but spared the fovea. Spectral domain OCT did not show any disturbance of overlying RPE and photoreceptor layer (Fig. 3). There were no other pathologic findings to explain the CMO. In the absence of detectable changes in RPE and photoreceptor layers, we postulate that altered cytokine milieu might have caused the CMO and its subsequent resolution. Nevertheless, unilateral or bilateral macular oedema may occur with no identifiable cause. In some idiopathic cases the oedema may resolve spontaneously or in some others persist despite treatment [6Johnson MW. Etiology and treatment of macular edema Am J Ophthalmol 2009; 147(1 ): 11-21.]. Although this case may belong to this category, one would naturally like to speculate about the pathogenesis of unilateral macular oedema in such a rare condition.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

The authors confirm that this article content has no conflicts of interest.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Declared none.

REFERENCES

[1] Funatsu H, Yamashita H, Ikeda T, et al. Vitreous levels of interleukin-6 and vascular endothelial growth factor are related to diabetic macular edema Ophthalmology 2003; 110: 690-.
[2] Naumann G, Yanoff M, Zimmerman L. Histogenesis of malignant melanomas of the uvea histopathologic characteristics of nevi of the choroid and ciliary body Arch Ophthalmol 1966; 6: 784-96.
[3] Shields C L, Mashayekhi A, Materin MA, et al. Optical coherence tomography of choroidal nevus in 120 patients Retina 2005; 25(3 ): 243-52.
[4] Shields CL, Furuta M, Mashayekhi A, et al. Clinical spectrum of choroidal nevi based on age at presentation in 3422 consecutive eyes Ophthalmology 2008; 115(3 ): 546-2.
[5] Gass J, Geiser R, Wilkinson C, et al. Bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation in patients with occult carcinoma Arch Ophthalmol 1990; 108: 527-33.
[6] Johnson MW. Etiology and treatment of macular edema Am J Ophthalmol 2009; 147(1 ): 11-21.
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