The Open Orthopaedics Journal




ISSN: 1874-3250 ― Volume 13, 2019
RESEARCH ARTICLE

The Added Value of Postoperative Axial Imaging in Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip



Nabil Alassaf1, *, Joud Abuhaimed2, Nouf Almahmoud2, Rawan Binkhulaif2
1 Department of surgical specialties, King Fahad Medical City, P.O. BOX 59046, Riyadh 11525, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
2 College of Medicine, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, P.O. BOX 84428, Riyadh 11671, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Abstract

Background:

Redislocation is a dreaded complication after reduction of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) in young children. While early detection facilitates urgent reoperation, delayed revisions are more complicated. Despite the weak evidence, an axial postoperative imaging tool is recommended. This study’s goal is to compare the effectiveness of conventional pelvic radiography alone and axial imaging.

Methods:

Data were collected retrospectively between 2012 and 2016. One study group comprised consecutive patients who had operative reduction followed by routine low-dose computed tomography (CT). Hips that had anteroposterior pelvic radiographs as the only confirmatory tool were used as a reference group.

Results:

We identified 241 patients (339 hips). The mean age and follow up were 19.6 months ± 9.3, and 15.5 months ± 11.1, respectively. There were 147 hips in the radiography group and 192 in the CT group. Radiography detected only three out of nine redislocations during the same admission; in contrast, 2/2 redislocations in the routine CT group were addressed before hospital discharge (p<0.01). There was no significant delay in hospital discharge when CT was used (p= 0.28).

Conclusion:

Conventional radiography is not as effective as axial imaging in preventing late detection of redislocation.

Level of Evidence:

level III, Diagnostic Study.

Keywords: Hip joint, Hip dysplasia, Hip dislocation, Radiography, Computed tomography, Redislocation.


Article Information


Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2017
Volume: 11
First Page: 567
Last Page: 576
Publisher Id: TOORTHJ-11-567
DOI: 10.2174/1874325001711010567

Article History:

Received Date: 07/5/2017
Revision Received Date: 12/06/2017
Acceptance Date: 15/06/2017
Electronic publication date: 26/07/2017
Collection year: 2017

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© 2017 Alassaf et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of surgical specialties, King Fahad Medical City, P.O.BOX 59046, Riyadh 11525, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Tel: +966532001152; E-mail: nalassaf@kfmc.med.sa





INTRODUCTION

Late diagnosis of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is a major health problem in some parts of the world, and leads to a high number of operative interventions [1Mirdad T. Incidence and pattern of congenital dislocation of the hip in Aseer region of Saudi Arabia. West Afr J Med 2002; 21(3): 218-22.
[PMID: 12744572]
]. It is generally accepted that children who fail splinting and those older than six months are treated in the operating room under general anesthetic with either closed reduction (CR) or open reduction (OR). The latter is performed if there is obstructing tissue or if the children are older than two years to facilitate simultaneous pelvic osteotomy, but some authors recommend forgoing CR after the age of 18 months [2Severin E. Congenital dislocation of the hip; development of the joint after closed reduction. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1950; 32-A(3): 507-18.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/00004623-195032030-00004] [PMID: 15428473]
, 3Salter RB. Role of innominate osteotomy in the treatment of congenital dislocation and subluxation of the hip in the older child. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1966; 48(7): 1413-39.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/00004623-196648070-00016] [PMID: 5921797]
]. Femoral shortening osteotomy is added based on intraoperative assessment to relocate the femoral head without excessive pressure [4Ashley RK, Larsen LJ, James PM. Reduction of dislocation of the hip in older children: a preliminary report. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1972; 54(3): 545-50.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/00004623-197254030-00007] [PMID: 5055152]
].

A dynamic hip arthrogram is used to confirm the adequacy of reduction in DDH intraoperatively. However, after the cast application and when the anesthetic wears off, redislocation may occur. Therefore, confirmatory images are obtained in the immediate postoperative period. Several diagnostic tests are used, namely conventional anteroposterior pelvic radiographs, ultrasound through a window in the cast, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) [5van Douveren FQ, Pruijs HE, Sakkers RJ, Nievelstein RA, Beek FJ. Ultrasound in the management of the position of the femoral head during treatment in a spica cast after reduction of hip dislocation in developmental dysplasia of the hip. J Bone Joint Surg Br 2003; 85(1): 117-20.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1302/0301-620X.85B1.12665] [PMID: 12585589]
-7Samuelson KM, Nixon GW, Morrow RE. Tomography for evaluation of congenital dislocation of the hip while in a spica cast. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1974; 56(4): 844-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/00004623-197456040-00027] [PMID: 4835835]
].

Anteroposterior pelvic radiograph is less favored postoperatively for theoretical reasons; Superimposed plaster material often precludes adequate visualization of the hip after reduction. Samuelson et al. used conventional tomography so no redislocation went unnoticed [7Samuelson KM, Nixon GW, Morrow RE. Tomography for evaluation of congenital dislocation of the hip while in a spica cast. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1974; 56(4): 844-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/00004623-197456040-00027] [PMID: 4835835]
]. A few years later, many centers reported the use of CT to assess reduction [8Lasda NA, Levinsohn EM, Yuan HA, Bunnell WP. Computerized tomography in disorders of the hip. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1978; 60(8): 1099-102.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/00004623-197860080-00014] [PMID: 281330]
, 9Peterson HA, Klassen RA, McLeod RA, Hoffman AD. The use of computerised tomography in dislocation of the hip and femoral neck anteversion in children. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1981; 63-B(2): 198-208.
[PMID: 7217142]
]. Although visualization may appear adequate, posterior redislocation may be difficult to recognize with the hip flexed and abducted in the “human frog” position [10Hernandez RJ. Concentric reduction of the dislocated hip. Computed-tomographic evaluation. Radiology 1984; 150(1): 266-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiology.150.1.6689774] [PMID: 6689774]
]. Eggli et al. found that low-dose CT, equivalent radiation of 0.64 mSv, is as diagnostic as higher doses CT when used post-DDH reduction [11Eggli KD, King SH, Boal DK, Quiogue T. Low-dose CT of developmental dysplasia of the hip after reduction: diagnostic accuracy and dosimetry. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1994; 163(6): 1441-3.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/ajr.163.6.7992743] [PMID: 7992743]
]. A recent study estimated total dose to be 0.5 mSV [12Sachleben B, Perry DC, Wedge J, Kelley SP. Intraoperative assessment of closed reduction for developmental dislocation of the hip using 3-dimensional fluoroscopy. J Pediatr Orthop 2015; 35(3): 246-52.
[PMID: 24992347]
]. That is about six times more radiation compared to conventional chest radiographs [13van der Bruggen-Bogaarts BA, Broerse JJ, Lammers JW, van Waes PF, Geleijns J. Radiation exposure in standard and high-resolution chest CT scans. Chest 1995; 107(1): 113-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1378/chest.107.1.113] [PMID: 7813260]
]. The dose varies according to patient size and gender for the same exposure. Ionizing radiation in children is linked to an increased risk of cancer later in life, but the long-term effect of pediatric low-dose pelvic CT has yet to be determined [14Mathews JD, Forsythe AV, Brady Z, Butler MW, Goergen SK, Byrnes GB, et al. Cancer risk in 680,000 people exposed to computed tomography scans in childhood or adolescence: data linkage study of 11 million Australians. BMJ British Medical Journal Publishing Group 2013. May 21 346(may21 1):f2360–0-16Miglioretti DL, Johnson E, Williams A, et al. The use of computed tomography in pediatrics and the associated radiation exposure and estimated cancer risk. JAMA Pediatr 2013; 167(8): 700-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2013.311] [PMID: 23754213]
].

To avoid ionizing radiation, magnetic resonant imaging (MRI) was introduced for use in DDH patients. It was later found to be as effective as CT in confirming concentric reduction, and because the child is immobilised in a cast, general anaesthetic is seldom needed [17Guidera KJ, Einbecker ME, Berman CG, Ogden JA, Arrington JA, Murtagh R. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of congenital dislocation of the hips. Clin Orthop Relat Res 1990; (261): 96-101.
[PMID: 2245565]
]. CT is more cumbersome than conventional radiography, and inconvenient for the patients and their families, and occasionally sedation is required, which is not the case for conventional radiographs. Research examining the effectiveness of radiography alone compared to 3D assessment tools in detecting early redislocation is scarce. The main goal of this study is to evaluate whether conventional pelvic radiography can substitute for three-dimensional imaging in the timely detection of redislocation after operative reduction of DDH. The secondary objective is to quantify the hospital stay among patients who have had CT compared to conventional pelvic radiographs.

MATERAL AND METHODS

Patient Selection

We obtained approval from the local ethics committee of our institution (approval number 15-359). A retrospective data collection design was used. We performed a census of all DDH patients who were operated on between September 2012 and June 2016. This multi-surgeon cohort included two groups according to the attending physicians’ routine practice (Fig. 1). The CT group is patients who had undergone routine immediate post-reduction low-dose pelvic CT prior to hospital discharge. The second group, the radiography group, had undergone conventional anteroposterior pelvic radiograph. Inclusion criteria were: patients less than four years of age, no prior hip operation, International Hip Dysplasia Institute (IHDI) grade 2-4, minimum follow up of two months [18Narayanan U, Mulpuri K, Sankar WN, Clarke NM, Hosalkar H, Price CT. Reliability of a new radiographic classification for developmental dysplasia of the hip. J Pediatr Orthop 2015; 35(5): 478-84.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BPO.0000000000000318] [PMID: 25264556]
]. We excluded patients with underlying neuromuscular conditions and hips that had been stabilized with Krischner wires.

Treatment Pathway

All the surgeries were performed under general anesthesia using routine techniques for CR and OR. All patients over one year of age had capsular plication after reduction through an anterior approach, whereas younger patients underwent medial open reduction [3Salter RB. Role of innominate osteotomy in the treatment of congenital dislocation and subluxation of the hip in the older child. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1966; 48(7): 1413-39.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/00004623-196648070-00016] [PMID: 5921797]
, 19Smith BG. Closed reduction for developmental dislocation of the hip in infants. Tech Orthop 1995; 10(1): 36-42.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00013611-199501010-00009]
]. All the operated hips were immobilized in a spica cast for six to ten weeks after OR, and 12 to 16 weeks after CR. The hip was kept flexed and abducted after CR, relatively extended and abducted after OR. Postoperative images were performed within 48 hours and prior to patient discharge. The CT was not repeated afterwards. Fluoroscopy and radiographs were used during cast change and in the clinic visits.

Fig. (1)
Imaging pathway.


Outcome Parameters

Besides demographic variables, surgical details, type of post-reduction images, duration of hospital stay, complications during hospitalization including unplanned trips to the operating room for redislocation, readmissions, follow-up duration and the final Shenton’s line alignment, were collected.

Statistical Methods

Fisher’s exact test was used for the count data. Normality of continuous data was assessed visually and found to be nonparametric, therefore the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test was then applied. Two-tailed p values of <0.05 were considered to be significant. We used R software for statistical analysis, version 3.3.1 (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria).

Fig. (2)
Right hip dislocation in an 18-month old girl. (a) Preoperative radiograph. (b) Intraoperative radiograph after closed reduction and cast application. (c) Frontal 3D CT-reconstructed images. (d) Axial cut showing the posterior dislocation. (e) Follow-up radiograph 22 months after salvage with open reduction and Dega osteotomy.


RESULTS

339 hips were analyzed in 241 patients. The mean (± SD) age was 19.6 months ± 9.3 (range:1 - 48). The mean follow-up was 15.5 months ± 11.1 (2 - 48). There were 206 females and 35 males. 156 hips were on the right side, and 183 on the left. 147 hips were in the radiography group and192 in the CT group. Baseline variables were balanced between the two groups, but the CT group had a higher proportion of closed reduction and lower rate of pelvic osteotomies Table 1.

Table 1
Baseline characteristics.


Overall, redislocation was detected in 3% of this sample during the study period. Seven hips redislocated after CR (Fig. 2), the remaining four were after OR. There was more late detection and readmission for redislocation in the radiography group (Table 2). The rate of resubluxation within the follow-up period as defined by the disrupted Shenton’s line was not significantly different. The mean hospital stay for the radiography group was 1.4 days ±1.1 (0 - 7) and 1.5 days ±1.19 (0 - 16) for the CT group (Fig. 3). The difference in hospital stay was not significant (p = 0.28). Of the 144 CT studies completed, 24 patients (16.7%) received Chloral Hydrate oral sedation.

Fig. (3)
Postoperative hospital stay. XR, radiography group; CT, Computed tomography group.


Table 2
Results.


Early postoperative complications that confounded duration of hospital stay were recorded in 19 patients (5.6%), upper respiratory tract infection being the most common (Table 3). The longest hospital stay was 16 days; the patient was two years and eight months old, underwent unilateral OR and pelvic osteotomy, had persistent fever due to streptococcal septicemia, and was kept in the hospital for intravenous therapy. The infection was believed to have come from tonsillitis just before the surgery. One patient had femoral nerve transection and subsequent subluxation. The operative report indicated that the exposure was medial to the Sartorius muscle, which is a locally accepted practice.

Table 3
Complications detected during index hospitalization.


DISCUSSION

In this study, we provide data to support the notion that postoperative axial images are effective in excluding immediate redislocation after operative reduction of DDH. Although the overall incidence of redislocation is relatively low, the difference in early detection of displacement between the radiography group and the CT group was significant (p < 0.01). At our institution, CT is a feasible method and does not significantly prolong hospital stay. Furthermore, while conventional radiographs are usually obtained immediately after the patient leaves the operating room, CT is typically performed the following day. We do not perform post-reduction ultrasound, and are moving toward MRI as the newer machines produce less noise and the scans are performed more easily without sedation. Moreover, to reduce radiation exposure, we now, tend to do less post-reduction CT for children with largely ossified femoral heads as we believe displacement can be detected by comparing the intraoperative with the postoperative radiographs (Fig. 4).

Fig. (4a)
Plain radiograph of a girl at age 2 years and 9 months.


Most of the relevant published work lacks direct comparison that justifies the need for advanced imaging postoperatively. The reported incidence of redislocation of DDH in the literature is 0% to 20% [20Stanton RP, Capecci R. Computed tomography for early evaluation of developmental dysplasia of the hip. J Pediatr Orthop 1992; 12(6): 727-30.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01241398-199211000-00005] [PMID: 1452740]
-24Chin MS, Betz BW, Halanski MA. Comparison of hip reduction using magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography in hip dysplasia. J Pediatr Orthop 2011; 31(5): 525-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BPO.0b013e31821f905b] [PMID: 21654460]
]. Here, the redislocation rate is 3% for the two groups combined. Eberhardt et al. compared post-reduction standard radiographs with ultrasound in 33 hips. In two cases, the radiographs showed symmetrical femoral head location, but the ultrasound detected posterior dislocation [6Eberhardt O, Zieger M, Langendoerfer M, Wirth T, Fernandez FF. Determination of hip reduction in spica cast treatment for DDH: a comparison of radiography and ultrasound. J Child Orthop 2009; 3(4): 313-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11832-009-0194-5] [PMID: 19657686]
]. Other studies are limited to small case series. Stanton et al. reviewed the scans of 42 patients over five years to determine the usefulness of CT in confirming reduction. They only included patients who had closed reduction before the age of 18 months; most patients had three studies; CT immediately after anesthesia, two weeks postoperatively and 6-8 weeks later after cast change. The CT detected two redislocations: one in the immediate postoperative CT and the other two weeks postoperatively [20Stanton RP, Capecci R. Computed tomography for early evaluation of developmental dysplasia of the hip. J Pediatr Orthop 1992; 12(6): 727-30.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01241398-199211000-00005] [PMID: 1452740]
]. Toby et al. reported their experience in 15 patients, and found unsatisfactory reduction detected in three patients by postoperative CT [21Toby EB, Koman LA, Bechtold RE, Nicastro JN. Postoperative computed tomographic evaluation of congenital hip dislocation. J Pediatr Orthop 1987; 7(6): 667-70.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01241398-198707060-00007] [PMID: 3429651]
].

Not surprisingly, more interest is now in MRI. Chin et al. compared the accuracy of MRI and CT for hip reduction in 39 patients. The calculated CT dose in their study was only 1 mSv, the sensitivity and specificity of both studies were excellent, 8/44 hips had a redislocation [24Chin MS, Betz BW, Halanski MA. Comparison of hip reduction using magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography in hip dysplasia. J Pediatr Orthop 2011; 31(5): 525-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BPO.0b013e31821f905b] [PMID: 21654460]
]. Later, Sachleben et al. reported a lower radiation dose of 0.5 mSv [12Sachleben B, Perry DC, Wedge J, Kelley SP. Intraoperative assessment of closed reduction for developmental dislocation of the hip using 3-dimensional fluoroscopy. J Pediatr Orthop 2015; 35(3): 246-52.
[PMID: 24992347]
]. The minimum follow-up was two months, which we believe is sufficient to answer our main research question. Moreover, Case et al. reported no redislocation after the first eight weeks following reduction in 67 hips, and the rate of redislocation was eight times higher after CR compared to OR [22Case RD, Gargan MF, Grier D, Portinaro NM. Confirmation of the reduction and containment of the femoral head with CT or MRI scans in DDH: The need for repeated scans. Hip Int 2000; 10(2): 118-22.]. In our study, the groups were imbalanced as there was more CR in the CT group, but this did not adversely affect the incidence of redislocation.

Fig. (4b)
Intraoperative fluoroscopy picture after open reduction, femoral shortening and Dega osteotomy.


Fig. (4c)
Postoperative radiograph indicating concentric reduction. Note the overlap between the ossific nucleus and the Ischium.


Fig. (4d)
Four months postoperative radiograph showing intact Shenton line.


A strength of this study is the large homogeneous number of patients, which includes a comparative group that did not receive postoperative 3D studies. We are not aware of similar published studies. Limitations of this study include retrospective data collection, but using a prospective design is not feasible because of the low occurrence of redislocation. A more optimal study design would have been comparing both imaging modalities on the same cohort, but this would entail unnecessary imaging and more radiation exposure. Therefore a differential verification approach was used based on clinical follow up. The benefits of early detection of redislocation are efficient patient care and less complicated revision by avoiding scar tissue, but these advantages remain theoretical.

CONCLUSION

Routine conventional pelvic radiographs do not substitute for 3D imaging in the timely detection of redislocation after operative reduction of DDH. Such confirmatory studies did not prolong hospital stay. Further research in selective imaging is suggested to minimize ionizing radiation and cost.

ETHICS APPROVAL AND CONSENT TO PARTICIPATE

The institutional review board approved the study and waived individual patients' consent.

CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION

Not applicable.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

The authors declare no conflict of interest, financial or otherwise

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors would like to thank Benjamin De Boer, PhD, for assistance with manuscript writing of this study.

REFRENCES

[1] Mirdad T. Incidence and pattern of congenital dislocation of the hip in Aseer region of Saudi Arabia. West Afr J Med 2002; 21(3): 218-22.
[PMID: 12744572]
[2] Severin E. Congenital dislocation of the hip; development of the joint after closed reduction. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1950; 32-A(3): 507-18.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/00004623-195032030-00004] [PMID: 15428473]
[3] Salter RB. Role of innominate osteotomy in the treatment of congenital dislocation and subluxation of the hip in the older child. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1966; 48(7): 1413-39.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/00004623-196648070-00016] [PMID: 5921797]
[4] Ashley RK, Larsen LJ, James PM. Reduction of dislocation of the hip in older children: a preliminary report. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1972; 54(3): 545-50.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/00004623-197254030-00007] [PMID: 5055152]
[5] van Douveren FQ, Pruijs HE, Sakkers RJ, Nievelstein RA, Beek FJ. Ultrasound in the management of the position of the femoral head during treatment in a spica cast after reduction of hip dislocation in developmental dysplasia of the hip. J Bone Joint Surg Br 2003; 85(1): 117-20.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1302/0301-620X.85B1.12665] [PMID: 12585589]
[6] Eberhardt O, Zieger M, Langendoerfer M, Wirth T, Fernandez FF. Determination of hip reduction in spica cast treatment for DDH: a comparison of radiography and ultrasound. J Child Orthop 2009; 3(4): 313-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11832-009-0194-5] [PMID: 19657686]
[7] Samuelson KM, Nixon GW, Morrow RE. Tomography for evaluation of congenital dislocation of the hip while in a spica cast. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1974; 56(4): 844-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/00004623-197456040-00027] [PMID: 4835835]
[8] Lasda NA, Levinsohn EM, Yuan HA, Bunnell WP. Computerized tomography in disorders of the hip. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1978; 60(8): 1099-102.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/00004623-197860080-00014] [PMID: 281330]
[9] Peterson HA, Klassen RA, McLeod RA, Hoffman AD. The use of computerised tomography in dislocation of the hip and femoral neck anteversion in children. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1981; 63-B(2): 198-208.
[PMID: 7217142]
[10] Hernandez RJ. Concentric reduction of the dislocated hip. Computed-tomographic evaluation. Radiology 1984; 150(1): 266-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiology.150.1.6689774] [PMID: 6689774]
[11] Eggli KD, King SH, Boal DK, Quiogue T. Low-dose CT of developmental dysplasia of the hip after reduction: diagnostic accuracy and dosimetry. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1994; 163(6): 1441-3.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/ajr.163.6.7992743] [PMID: 7992743]
[12] Sachleben B, Perry DC, Wedge J, Kelley SP. Intraoperative assessment of closed reduction for developmental dislocation of the hip using 3-dimensional fluoroscopy. J Pediatr Orthop 2015; 35(3): 246-52.
[PMID: 24992347]
[13] van der Bruggen-Bogaarts BA, Broerse JJ, Lammers JW, van Waes PF, Geleijns J. Radiation exposure in standard and high-resolution chest CT scans. Chest 1995; 107(1): 113-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1378/chest.107.1.113] [PMID: 7813260]
[14] Mathews JD, Forsythe AV, Brady Z, Butler MW, Goergen SK, Byrnes GB, et al. Cancer risk in 680,000 people exposed to computed tomography scans in childhood or adolescence: data linkage study of 11 million Australians. BMJ British Medical Journal Publishing Group 2013. May 21 346(may21 1):f2360–0
[15] Krille L, Dreger S, Schindel R, et al. Risk of cancer incidence before the age of 15 years after exposure to ionising radiation from computed tomography: results from a German cohort study. Radiat Environ Biophys 2015; 54(1): 1-12.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00411-014-0580-3] [PMID: 25567615]
[16] Miglioretti DL, Johnson E, Williams A, et al. The use of computed tomography in pediatrics and the associated radiation exposure and estimated cancer risk. JAMA Pediatr 2013; 167(8): 700-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2013.311] [PMID: 23754213]
[17] Guidera KJ, Einbecker ME, Berman CG, Ogden JA, Arrington JA, Murtagh R. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of congenital dislocation of the hips. Clin Orthop Relat Res 1990; (261): 96-101.
[PMID: 2245565]
[18] Narayanan U, Mulpuri K, Sankar WN, Clarke NM, Hosalkar H, Price CT. Reliability of a new radiographic classification for developmental dysplasia of the hip. J Pediatr Orthop 2015; 35(5): 478-84.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BPO.0000000000000318] [PMID: 25264556]
[19] Smith BG. Closed reduction for developmental dislocation of the hip in infants. Tech Orthop 1995; 10(1): 36-42.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00013611-199501010-00009]
[20] Stanton RP, Capecci R. Computed tomography for early evaluation of developmental dysplasia of the hip. J Pediatr Orthop 1992; 12(6): 727-30.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01241398-199211000-00005] [PMID: 1452740]
[21] Toby EB, Koman LA, Bechtold RE, Nicastro JN. Postoperative computed tomographic evaluation of congenital hip dislocation. J Pediatr Orthop 1987; 7(6): 667-70.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01241398-198707060-00007] [PMID: 3429651]
[22] Case RD, Gargan MF, Grier D, Portinaro NM. Confirmation of the reduction and containment of the femoral head with CT or MRI scans in DDH: The need for repeated scans. Hip Int 2000; 10(2): 118-22.
[23] Duffy CM, Taylor FN, Coleman L, Graham HK, Nattrass GR. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of surgical management in developmental dysplasia of the hip in childhood. J Pediatr Orthop 2002; 22(1): 92-100.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01241398-200201000-00020] [PMID: 11744862]
[24] Chin MS, Betz BW, Halanski MA. Comparison of hip reduction using magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography in hip dysplasia. J Pediatr Orthop 2011; 31(5): 525-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BPO.0b013e31821f905b] [PMID: 21654460]

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Robert Looney
(Naval Postgraduate School, USA)

"Open access journals have transformed the way scientific data is published and disseminated: particularly, whilst ensuring a high quality standard and transparency in the editorial process, they have increased the access to the scientific literature by those researchers that have limited library support or that are working on small budgets."


Richard Reithinger
(Westat, USA)

"Not only do open access journals greatly improve the access to high quality information for scientists in the developing world, it also provides extra exposure for our papers."


J. Ferwerda
(University of Oxford, UK)

"Open Access 'Chemistry' Journals allow the dissemination of knowledge at your finger tips without paying for the scientific content."


Sean L. Kitson
(Almac Sciences, Northern Ireland)

"In principle, all scientific journals should have open access, as should be science itself. Open access journals are very helpful for students, researchers and the general public including people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals. The articles are high standard and cover a wide area."


Hubert Wolterbeek
(Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)

"The widest possible diffusion of information is critical for the advancement of science. In this perspective, open access journals are instrumental in fostering researches and achievements."


Alessandro Laviano
(Sapienza - University of Rome, Italy)

"Open access journals are very useful for all scientists as they can have quick information in the different fields of science."


Philippe Hernigou
(Paris University, France)

"There are many scientists who can not afford the rather expensive subscriptions to scientific journals. Open access journals offer a good alternative for free access to good quality scientific information."


Fidel Toldrá
(Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Spain)

"Open access journals have become a fundamental tool for students, researchers, patients and the general public. Many people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals benefit of them on a daily basis. The articles are among the best and cover most scientific areas."


M. Bendandi
(University Clinic of Navarre, Spain)

"These journals provide researchers with a platform for rapid, open access scientific communication. The articles are of high quality and broad scope."


Peter Chiba
(University of Vienna, Austria)

"Open access journals are probably one of the most important contributions to promote and diffuse science worldwide."


Jaime Sampaio
(University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal)

"Open access journals make up a new and rather revolutionary way to scientific publication. This option opens several quite interesting possibilities to disseminate openly and freely new knowledge and even to facilitate interpersonal communication among scientists."


Eduardo A. Castro
(INIFTA, Argentina)

"Open access journals are freely available online throughout the world, for you to read, download, copy, distribute, and use. The articles published in the open access journals are high quality and cover a wide range of fields."


Kenji Hashimoto
(Chiba University, Japan)

"Open Access journals offer an innovative and efficient way of publication for academics and professionals in a wide range of disciplines. The papers published are of high quality after rigorous peer review and they are Indexed in: major international databases. I read Open Access journals to keep abreast of the recent development in my field of study."


Daniel Shek
(Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong)

"It is a modern trend for publishers to establish open access journals. Researchers, faculty members, and students will be greatly benefited by the new journals of Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. in this category."


Jih Ru Hwu
(National Central University, Taiwan)


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