The Open Orthopaedics Journal




ISSN: 1874-3250 ― Volume 13, 2019
CASE REPORT

Combined Intracapsular And Extracapsular Neck Of Femur Fractures Case Series, Literature Review And Management Recommendations



Wasim Khan*, Rhodri Williams, Sam Hopwood, Sanjeev Agarwal
Cardiff & Vale Orthopaedic Centre, Llandough University Hospital, Cardiff & Vale NHS Trust, Cardiff, UK

Abstract

Concomitant ipsilateral intracapsular and extracapsular fractures of the femoral neck are rare injuries with only 14 cases described in the literature as single case reports. We present three cases that were successfully and uniquely treated by uncemented hip arthroplasties. Two patients underwent complex primary uncemented total hip replacements, and one patient underwent an uncemented bipolar fluted stem hemiarthroplasty. The level of bearing constraint varied between implants. After describing our cases we review the literature and make recommendations on the management of these injuries. We believe that these are significant injuries and best functional results can be achieved with an early diagnosis and patient-specific approach that can include a total hip replacement in appropriate cases.

Keywords: Segmental neck of femur fractures, Combined neck of femur fracture, Total hip replacement, Hemiarthroplasty, Constraint, Internal fixation.


Article Information


Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2017
Volume: 11
First Page: 600
Last Page: 608
Publisher Id: TOORTHJ-11-600
DOI: 10.2174/1874325001711010600

Article History:

Received Date: 06/2/2017
Revision Received Date: 06/4/2017
Acceptance Date: 15/06/2017
Electronic publication date: 31/07/2017
Collection year: 2017

Article Metrics:

CrossRef Citations:
0

Total Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 2188
Abstract HTML Views: 1052
PDF Downloads: 499
ePub Downloads: 340
Total Views/Downloads: 4079

Unique Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 1186
Abstract HTML Views: 679
PDF Downloads: 277
ePub Downloads: 179
Total Views/Downloads: 2321
Geographical View

© 2017 Khan et al..

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


* Address correspondence to this author at the Cardiff & Vale Orthopaedic Centre, Llandough University Hospital, Cardiff & Vale NHS Trust, Cardiff, UK, Tel: +44 (0) 7791 05554; Fax: +44 (0) 1707 655059; E-mails: wasim.khan@ucl.ac.uk; wasimkhan@doctors.org.uk





INTRODUCTION

Concomitant ipsilateral intracapsular and extracapsular fractures of the femoral neck, otherwise known as segmental neck of femur fractures, are rare injuries but are difficult to manage. These are generally associated with either significant trauma in young patients or low energy injuries to pathological bone in older patients. These injuries are associated with a significant risk of complications including avascular necrosis, non-union and malunion, potentially greater than those associated with single fractures. There has been a limited number of single case reports described in the literature where these fractures are managed with internal fixation or hemiarthroplasty.

CASE SERIES

We present three cases with segmental neck of femur fractures successfully managed with total hip replacements and a hemiarthroplasty. In our series, two patients received complex primary uncemented total hip replacements and the third patient received a Wagner modular, taper-fluted titanium stem with a bipolar head (Zimmer). One total hip replacement included a constrained hip liner system. This is the first report of the management of these fractures with total hip replacements. Following a description of our cases we review the literature and make recommendations on the management of these challenging fractures.

Case 1: A 66 year old male sustained a low energy fall. He was a residential home resident with a history of previous alcoholism and cognitive impairment. Although he resided in a home, prior to the fall he enjoyed a degree of independence and regularly walked to the shops. The patient on radiographs had a displaced intracapsular and intertrochanteric fracture (Fig. 1a). The patient had a high risk of fixation failure in view of his age, associated risk factors, and fracture configuration. In view of this, a decision was made to perform an arthroplasty. The complicating factors were the patient’s cognitive impairment and abductor insufficiency secondary to the trochanteric fracture. To address these factors, the patient underwent a complex primary total hip replacement with a constrained liner and trochanteric grip plate (Fig. 1b). At final follow-up at 18 months he was pleased with the results of surgery and his radiographs were satisfactory. There were no recorded complications. He was mobilising unaided and still managing to go to the shops.

Fig. (1a)
Anterio-posterior pelvic radiograph of Case 1 following the fall (a).


Fig. (1b)
and after total hip replacement and insertion of trochanteric grip plate (b).


Case 2: An 82 year old independent male with a history of hip osteoarthritis had a simple mechanical fall sustaining an intracapsular fracture with concominant subtrochanteric fracture (Fig. 2a). Following radiographs, a computerized tomography (CT) scan was performed to better define the fracture configuration and demonstrated fracture comminution. Due to the segmental nature of the fracture and the pre-existing severe arthritis, fixation was not considered a valid option, and the patient underwent a total hip replacement with plate stabilisation for the fracture extension (Fig. 2b). There were no recorded complications. At final follow-up 12 months post-operatively he was pain free mobilizing with a walking stick and had satisfactory radiographs.

Fig. (2a)
Anterio-posterior pelvic radiograph of Case 2 following the fall (a).


Fig. (2b)
and after total hip replacement with plate stabilisation (b).


Case 3: Our third case was an 80 year old nursing home resident with multiple co-morbidities who mobilized with a Zimmer frame. She had a fall and radiographs revealed an intracapsular fracture with concominant subtrochanteric fracture with diaphyseal extension (Fig. 3a). She had an American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) grade of 3. Various surgical treatments were considered, and to reduce the chances of any revision surgery from failure of fixation, an arthroplasty was performed. A primary femoral stem was not appropriate in view of the fracture configuration and extension, therefore an uncemented modular, taper-fluted titanium stem with a bipolar head was used (Fig. 3b). There were no recorded complications. At final follow-up at two years post-operatively, the patient remained mobile with a Zimmer frame.

Fig. (3a)
Anterio-posterior pelvic radiograph of Case 3 following the fall (a).


Fig. (3b)
and after bipolar long-stem hemiarthroplasty (b).


LITERATURE REVIEW

A review of the literature was performed and 14 cases reports describing 14 segmental neck of femur fractures were identified ranging from 1989 to 2014 [1An HS, Wojcieszek JM, Cooke RF, Limbird R, Jackson WT. Simultaneous ipsilateral intertrochanteric and subcapital fracture of the hip. A case report. Orthopedics 1989; 12(5): 721-3.
[PMID: 2657683]
-14Tahir M, Lakkol S, Naique S. Segmental neck of femur fractures: A unique case report of an ipsilateral subcapital, greater trochanteric and intertrochanteric fracture and proposed management algorithm. Int J Surg Case Rep 2014; 5(5): 277-81.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijscr.2014.03.012] [PMID: 24727209]
]. The details of these cases are described in (Table 1). The age ranges of the 14 patients described in the literature and our three patients were plot against the numbers (Fig. 4) to demonstrate a bimodal distribution of these injuries, similar to other fractures of the neck of femur. The mean age of all patients was 68 years (range 28-97 years). All four patients under the age of 50 years sustained their injuries following a road traffic accident, and 10 of the 12 patients over the age of 60 years had a low energy fracture. The fracture configurations varied, and in five patients additional imaging was performed in addition to radiographs.

Table 1
Details of the 14 cases described in the literature.


In four of the 14 cases described in the literature, the fractures were not initially appreciated, and in two cases further imaging was performed to investigate the fracture configuration further. An et al. [1An HS, Wojcieszek JM, Cooke RF, Limbird R, Jackson WT. Simultaneous ipsilateral intertrochanteric and subcapital fracture of the hip. A case report. Orthopedics 1989; 12(5): 721-3.
[PMID: 2657683]
] appreciated the additional fracture when the patient had repeat radiographs whilst waiting to be medically optimised for surgery. Cohen & Rzetelny [3Cohen I, Rzetelny V. Simultaneous ipsilateral pertrochanteric and subcapital fractures. Orthopedics 1999; 22(5): 535-6.
[PMID: 10348115]
] noticed the additional fracture on intra-operative fluoroscopic screening. Perry & Scott [11Perry DC, Scott SJ. Concomitant ipsilateral intracapsular and extracapsular femoral neck fracture: a case report. J Med Case Reports 2008; 2: 68-70.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1752-1947-2-68] [PMID: 18312634]
] only noticed the intracapsular fracture once it displaced after 10 weeks of mobilisation following dynamic hip screw fixation of the intertrochanteric fracture. Neogi et al. [13Neogi DS, Ajay Kumar KV, Trikha V, Yadav CS. Ipsilateral femoral neck and trochanter fracture. Indian J Orthop 2011; 45(1): 82-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0019-5413.54765] [PMID: 21221230]
] only identified the extent of the fracture on CT scanning of the contralateral fracture dislocated hip. Three of the six patients with high energy injuries had significant associated injuries. Interestingly three of seven low energy injuries described in the literature were noticed to have arrhythmias on presentation that needed to be managed before surgery.

The 14 cases reported in the literature so far have been managed in a heterogeneous fashion. Eleven cases underwent fixation with dynamic hip screws, dynamic condylar screws or similar constructs. Three patients underwent hemiarthroplasties. The 14 cases previously described in the literature were followed up for on average of 15 months (range 1-58 month). Interestingly, most patients did well with only one report of avascular necrosis (AVN) [5Kumar R, Khan R, Moholkar K, Smyth H, Borton D. A rare combination fracture of the neck of femur. Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol 2001; 11: 59-61.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01706667]
]. The patient whose fixation failed as the extent of fracture was not recognised intraoperatively refused further surgery [11Perry DC, Scott SJ. Concomitant ipsilateral intracapsular and extracapsular femoral neck fracture: a case report. J Med Case Reports 2008; 2: 68-70.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1752-1947-2-68] [PMID: 18312634]
]. One patient with a high energy injury ended up with a 2cm shortening [7Sayegh F, Karataglis D, Trapotsis S, Christopforides J, Pournaras J. Concomitant ipsilateral pertrochanteric and subcapital fracture of the proximal femur. Eur J Trauma 2005; 31: 64-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00068-005-1413-5]
]. One patient died shortly after surgery from other causes [4Isaacs C, Lawrence B. Concomitant ipsilateral intertrochanteric and subcapital fracture of the hip. J Orthop Trauma 1993; 7(2): 146-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005131-199304000-00008] [PMID: 8459300]
].

Fig. (4)
Graph demonstrating the age ranges on the x-axis and the number of cases described inth eliterature on the y-axis. A bimodal distribution is demonstrated.


DISCUSSION

Older patients with low energy fractures need to be optimised before surgery and this may need input from medical and anaesthetic teams [15White JJ, Khan WS, Smitham PJ. Perioperative implications of surgery in elderly patients with hip fractures: an evidence-based review. J Perioper Pract 2011; 21(6): 192-7.
[PMID: 21823308]
]. There are a number of surgical treatment options available for neck of femur fractures [16Malik AA, Kell P, Khan WS, Ihsan KM, Dunkow P. Surgical management of fractured neck of femur. J Perioper Pract 2009; 19(3): 100-4.
[PMID: 19397061]
]. The AVN rate of intracapsular fractures depends on the age of the patient; the rate is 20% in patients younger than 60 years old, and 12.5% in patients between the ages of 60 and 80 years old [17Ravikumar KJ, Marsh G. Internal fixation versus hemiarthroplasty versus total hip arthroplasty for displaced subcapital fractures of femur--13 year results of a prospective randomised study. Injury 2000; 31(10): 793-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0020-1383(00)00125-X] [PMID: 11154750]
]. The rate is likely to be higher in patients with segmental injuries due to the extent of bony and soft tissue disruption. This needs to be borne in mind when considering the optimal surgical management. Although our patients did well following arthroplasty, the literature, albeit with short follow-ups, does suggest good results with internal fixation. Cement augmentation of internal fixation has been described and may further reduce the incidence of complications in these difficult injuries [18Gupta RK, Gupta V, Gupta N. Outcomes of osteoporotic trochanteric fractures treated with cement-augmented dynamic hip screw. Indian J Orthop 2012; 46(6): 640-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0019-5413.104193] [PMID: 23325965]
]. There is increasing evidence that elderly patients with displaced neck of femur fractures do better with arthroplasty than with internal fixation [19Dai Z, Li Y, Jiang D. Meta-analysis comparing arthroplasty with internal fixation for displaced femoral neck fracture in the elderly. J Surg Res 2011; 165(1): 68-74.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2009.03.029] [PMID: 19552922]
].

We believe that arthroplasty alleviates the risk of AVN, non-union and mal-union associated with fracture fixation and pathological bone, and also allows a more constrained implant where there are concerns regarding stability. In our case series, the level of bearing constraint varied between cases, and this too is an important consideration in deciding the arthroplasty implants. We considered a greater level of constraint of a cup in Case 1 as the patient had a history of cognitive impairment and alcoholism, and a hip fracture configuration suggesting abductor deficiency. We advocate the use of uncemented implants, without potential cement interposition at the fracture site to ensure union.

One limitation of our case series is that it is a retrospective series from a single centre. The cases were managed according to the preference of the operating surgeon and hence different implants were used. These nevertheless highlight that arthroplasty is a valid option where the risks of internal fixation are high.

RECOMMENDATIONS

We recommend a high index of suspicion when assessing radiographs, and further imaging where the radiographs do not demonstrate the fracture pattern clearly. The management of high energy injuries needs to follow appropriate protocol and the presence of distracting injuries should be considered when assessing for injuries. Although the literature suggests that internal fixation is appropriate for healthier and younger patients, there is increasing evidence that elderly patients and those with co-morbidities with displaced neck of femur fractures do better with arthroplasty.

CONCLUSION

In conclusion, these fractures are rare but present a challenging problem. We believe that these are significant injuries and best functional results can be achieved with an early diagnosis and patient-specific approach that can include a total hip replacement in appropriate cases.

ETHICS APPROVAL AND CONSENT TO PARTICIPATE

Not applicable.

HUMAN AND ANIMAL RIGHTS

No Animals/Humans were used for studies that are base of this research.

CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION

Not applicable.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

The authors declare no conflict of interest, financial or otherwise

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Declared none.

REFERENCES

[1] An HS, Wojcieszek JM, Cooke RF, Limbird R, Jackson WT. Simultaneous ipsilateral intertrochanteric and subcapital fracture of the hip. A case report. Orthopedics 1989; 12(5): 721-3.
[PMID: 2657683]
[2] Pemberton DJ, Kriebich DN, Moran CG. Segmental fracture of the neck of the femur. Injury 1989; 20(5): 306-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0020-1383(89)90179-4] [PMID: 2613321]
[3] Cohen I, Rzetelny V. Simultaneous ipsilateral pertrochanteric and subcapital fractures. Orthopedics 1999; 22(5): 535-6.
[PMID: 10348115]
[4] Isaacs C, Lawrence B. Concomitant ipsilateral intertrochanteric and subcapital fracture of the hip. J Orthop Trauma 1993; 7(2): 146-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005131-199304000-00008] [PMID: 8459300]
[5] Kumar R, Khan R, Moholkar K, Smyth H, Borton D. A rare combination fracture of the neck of femur. Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol 2001; 11: 59-61.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01706667]
[6] Lakshmanan P, Peehal JP. Management of an unusual intra- and extra-capsular subcapital femoral neck fracture. Acta Orthop Belg 2005; 71(5): 622-5.
[PMID: 16305092]
[7] Sayegh F, Karataglis D, Trapotsis S, Christopforides J, Pournaras J. Concomitant ipsilateral pertrochanteric and subcapital fracture of the proximal femur. Eur J Trauma 2005; 31: 64-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00068-005-1413-5]
[8] Butt MF, Dhar SA, Hussain A, Gani NU, Kangoo KA, Farooq M. Femoral neck fracture with ipsilateral trochanteric fracture: is there room for osteosynthesis? Internet J Orthop Surg 2007; 5(1)
[9] Poulter RJ, Ashworth MJ. Concomitant ipsilateral subcapital and intertrochanteric fractures of the femur. Inj Extra 2007; 38: 88-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.injury.2006.07.054]
[10] Dhar SA, Mir MR, Butt MF, Farooq M, Ali MF. Osteosynthesis for a T-shaped fracture of the femoral neck and trochanter: a case report. J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong) 2008; 16(2): 257-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/230949900801600227] [PMID: 18725685]
[11] Perry DC, Scott SJ. Concomitant ipsilateral intracapsular and extracapsular femoral neck fracture: a case report. J Med Case Reports 2008; 2: 68-70.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1752-1947-2-68] [PMID: 18312634]
[12] Loupasis G, Ntagiopoulos PG, Asimakopoulos A. Concomitant ipsilateral subcapital and intertrochanteric fractures of the femur: a case report. J Med Case Reports 2010; 4: 363.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1752-1947-4-363] [PMID: 21078164]
[13] Neogi DS, Ajay Kumar KV, Trikha V, Yadav CS. Ipsilateral femoral neck and trochanter fracture. Indian J Orthop 2011; 45(1): 82-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0019-5413.54765] [PMID: 21221230]
[14] Tahir M, Lakkol S, Naique S. Segmental neck of femur fractures: A unique case report of an ipsilateral subcapital, greater trochanteric and intertrochanteric fracture and proposed management algorithm. Int J Surg Case Rep 2014; 5(5): 277-81.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijscr.2014.03.012] [PMID: 24727209]
[15] White JJ, Khan WS, Smitham PJ. Perioperative implications of surgery in elderly patients with hip fractures: an evidence-based review. J Perioper Pract 2011; 21(6): 192-7.
[PMID: 21823308]
[16] Malik AA, Kell P, Khan WS, Ihsan KM, Dunkow P. Surgical management of fractured neck of femur. J Perioper Pract 2009; 19(3): 100-4.
[PMID: 19397061]
[17] Ravikumar KJ, Marsh G. Internal fixation versus hemiarthroplasty versus total hip arthroplasty for displaced subcapital fractures of femur--13 year results of a prospective randomised study. Injury 2000; 31(10): 793-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0020-1383(00)00125-X] [PMID: 11154750]
[18] Gupta RK, Gupta V, Gupta N. Outcomes of osteoporotic trochanteric fractures treated with cement-augmented dynamic hip screw. Indian J Orthop 2012; 46(6): 640-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0019-5413.104193] [PMID: 23325965]
[19] Dai Z, Li Y, Jiang D. Meta-analysis comparing arthroplasty with internal fixation for displaced femoral neck fracture in the elderly. J Surg Res 2011; 165(1): 68-74.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2009.03.029] [PMID: 19552922]

Endorsements



"Open access will revolutionize 21st century knowledge work and accelerate the diffusion of ideas and evidence that support just in time learning and the evolution of thinking in a number of disciplines."


Daniel Pesut
(Indiana University School of Nursing, USA)

"It is important that students and researchers from all over the world can have easy access to relevant, high-standard and timely scientific information. This is exactly what Open Access Journals provide and this is the reason why I support this endeavor."


Jacques Descotes
(Centre Antipoison-Centre de Pharmacovigilance, France)

"Publishing research articles is the key for future scientific progress. Open Access publishing is therefore of utmost importance for wider dissemination of information, and will help serving the best interest of the scientific community."


Patrice Talaga
(UCB S.A., Belgium)

"Open access journals are a novel concept in the medical literature. They offer accessible information to a wide variety of individuals, including physicians, medical students, clinical investigators, and the general public. They are an outstanding source of medical and scientific information."


Jeffrey M. Weinberg
(St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, USA)

"Open access journals are extremely useful for graduate students, investigators and all other interested persons to read important scientific articles and subscribe scientific journals. Indeed, the research articles span a wide range of area and of high quality. This is specially a must for researchers belonging to institutions with limited library facility and funding to subscribe scientific journals."


Debomoy K. Lahiri
(Indiana University School of Medicine, USA)

"Open access journals represent a major break-through in publishing. They provide easy access to the latest research on a wide variety of issues. Relevant and timely articles are made available in a fraction of the time taken by more conventional publishers. Articles are of uniformly high quality and written by the world's leading authorities."


Robert Looney
(Naval Postgraduate School, USA)

"Open access journals have transformed the way scientific data is published and disseminated: particularly, whilst ensuring a high quality standard and transparency in the editorial process, they have increased the access to the scientific literature by those researchers that have limited library support or that are working on small budgets."


Richard Reithinger
(Westat, USA)

"Not only do open access journals greatly improve the access to high quality information for scientists in the developing world, it also provides extra exposure for our papers."


J. Ferwerda
(University of Oxford, UK)

"Open Access 'Chemistry' Journals allow the dissemination of knowledge at your finger tips without paying for the scientific content."


Sean L. Kitson
(Almac Sciences, Northern Ireland)

"In principle, all scientific journals should have open access, as should be science itself. Open access journals are very helpful for students, researchers and the general public including people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals. The articles are high standard and cover a wide area."


Hubert Wolterbeek
(Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)

"The widest possible diffusion of information is critical for the advancement of science. In this perspective, open access journals are instrumental in fostering researches and achievements."


Alessandro Laviano
(Sapienza - University of Rome, Italy)

"Open access journals are very useful for all scientists as they can have quick information in the different fields of science."


Philippe Hernigou
(Paris University, France)

"There are many scientists who can not afford the rather expensive subscriptions to scientific journals. Open access journals offer a good alternative for free access to good quality scientific information."


Fidel Toldrá
(Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Spain)

"Open access journals have become a fundamental tool for students, researchers, patients and the general public. Many people from institutions which do not have library or cannot afford to subscribe scientific journals benefit of them on a daily basis. The articles are among the best and cover most scientific areas."


M. Bendandi
(University Clinic of Navarre, Spain)

"These journals provide researchers with a platform for rapid, open access scientific communication. The articles are of high quality and broad scope."


Peter Chiba
(University of Vienna, Austria)

"Open access journals are probably one of the most important contributions to promote and diffuse science worldwide."


Jaime Sampaio
(University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Portugal)

"Open access journals make up a new and rather revolutionary way to scientific publication. This option opens several quite interesting possibilities to disseminate openly and freely new knowledge and even to facilitate interpersonal communication among scientists."


Eduardo A. Castro
(INIFTA, Argentina)

"Open access journals are freely available online throughout the world, for you to read, download, copy, distribute, and use. The articles published in the open access journals are high quality and cover a wide range of fields."


Kenji Hashimoto
(Chiba University, Japan)

"Open Access journals offer an innovative and efficient way of publication for academics and professionals in a wide range of disciplines. The papers published are of high quality after rigorous peer review and they are Indexed in: major international databases. I read Open Access journals to keep abreast of the recent development in my field of study."


Daniel Shek
(Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong)

"It is a modern trend for publishers to establish open access journals. Researchers, faculty members, and students will be greatly benefited by the new journals of Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. in this category."


Jih Ru Hwu
(National Central University, Taiwan)


Browse Contents




Webmaster Contact: info@benthamopen.net
Copyright © 2019 Bentham Open