The Open Psychology Journal




ISSN: 1874-3501 ― Volume 12, 2019
RESEARCH ARTICLE

Teachers Organizational Commitment in Elementary School: A Study in Banjarmasin Indonesia



Aslamiah*
Department of Management Education, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Lambung Mangkurat, Banjarmasin, Indonesia

Abstract

Background:

Teachers organizational commitment had been found affecting their quality of work, and productivity.

Objective:

The objectives of the study were to analyze teachers organizational commitment for each dimension; to analyze teachers organizational commitment between excellent and low achievement schools, and to analyze teachers organizational commitment between excellent and low achievement schools in urban and suburban areas in Banjarmasin. A number of respondents were teachers from 247 elementary school in Banjarmasin. The Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ) had been used to measure the commitment of teachers. Data analysis were the means, one-way ANOVA, and two-way ANOVA.

Results:

The research showed that teacher organizational commitment in elementary schools in Banjarmasin is very good. The continuous commitment has the highest value of the mean. The continuous commitment describes economically reason. Mean value of organization commitment both excellent schools and low achievement school are 3.93 and 3.38. Mean for teacher’s organizational commitment of excellent schools in urban is 4.11, and 3.29 for suburban. Mean of low achievement school in urban is 3.71, while the mean of low achievement school in sub-urban is 3.29. F value for the interaction on teacher’s organizational commitment between excellent and low achievement schools both in urban and suburban areas is 5.368, which is significant (<0.05).

Conclusion:

It means a significant difference exists in teacher’s organizational commitment between excellent schools and no achievement schools both in urban and suburban areas in Banjarmasin.

Keywords: Organizational commitment, Elementary school, ANOVA, OCQ, Professional commitment, Union commitment.


Article Information


Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2019
Volume: 12
First Page: 1
Last Page: 6
Publisher Id: TOPSYJ-12-1
DOI: 10.2174/1874350101912010001

Article History:

Received Date: 26/09/2018
Revision Received Date: 10/12/2018
Acceptance Date: 12/01/2019
Electronic publication date: 31/1/2019
Collection year: 2019

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© 2019 Aslamiah.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode). This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Management Education, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Universitas Lambung Mangkurat, Banjarmasin, Indonesia; E-mail: aslamiah.fkip.unlam@gmail.com





1. INTRODUCTION

Teachers determine the success of education in the school [1Firman H, Tola B. The future of schooling in Indonesia. Kokusai Kyoiku Kyoryoku Ronshu 2008; 11: 71-84., 2The World Bank. Executive Summary Transforming Indonesia’s Teaching ForceVol. I2010; ]. A school will be effective if the teachers are fully responsible [3Fullan M. The new Meaning of Education Change 1991., 4Lortie D. School Teacher: A Sociological Study 2002.]. The teacher's commitment plays a key role in achieving the good quality of educational goals [5Jannah W. Komitmen Guru dalam Melaksanakan Tugas di Sekolah Menengah Atas (SMA) di Kecamatan Rokan IV Koto. Jurnal Administrasi Pendidikan 2014; 2: 789-831., 6Mart C. A passionate teacher: Teacher commitment and dedication to student learning. Int J Acad Res in Prog Edu Dev 2013; 2: 437-42.].

Commitment determines the success of teaching [6Mart C. A passionate teacher: Teacher commitment and dedication to student learning. Int J Acad Res in Prog Edu Dev 2013; 2: 437-42.]. Commitment is a principle, which must be owned by a professional teacher. Commitment is a person's covenant with itself to carry out a task with full of responsibility, caring, and high loyalty [5Jannah W. Komitmen Guru dalam Melaksanakan Tugas di Sekolah Menengah Atas (SMA) di Kecamatan Rokan IV Koto. Jurnal Administrasi Pendidikan 2014; 2: 789-831.].

Students’ achievement is related to teachers’ commitment. Commitment is a very important factor that enables certain goals to be accomplished [7Jazzar M, Algozzine B. Critical issues in educational leadership 2006.]. Teacher’s commitment to education affects students learning [8Kushman J. Teacher workplace commitment. Educ Adm Q 1992; 28: 5-42.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0013161X92028001002]
, 9Reyes P. Preliminary models of teacher organizational commitment: Implications for restructuring the workplace 1992.]. A study [10Hadi S. Effective Teacher Professional Development For the Implementation of Realistic Mathematics Education in Indonesia 2002.] found that teachers' commitment to improving the teaching quality is not encouraging as they still use conventional strategies, although they receive the training. Students' achievement was low due to low teacher commitment to the teacher’s professionalism [11Nilan P. Teachers’ work and schooling in Bali. Int Rev Educ 2003; 49: 563-84.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:REVI.0000006928.59011.ef]
].

Factors that contribute to teacher commitment include status perception, expectations of people, the profession of interest, intrinsic motivation, social motivation, positive group motivation, perceived advancement, and skills improvement for professional purpose. High commitment of teacher affects the goal and value of teacher professionalism [12Raju P, Srivastava R. Factors contributing to commitment to the teaching profession. Int J Educ Manag 1994; 8: 7-13.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09513549410065684]
].

Area of commitment consists of commitment for the student, commitment for the community, commitment to the profession, commitment for the excellent action, and commitment of basic value. Commitment for student needs to hold due to the student needs the teacher who understands their instincts, learning needs, and student capacity. Commitment for a community related about the schools and community. Commitment for the profession is the various innovative method of teaching to achieve effective learning. Commitment for the excellent value is the teacher who commits for searching to become a professional and a better teacher. Commitment to the basic value is that the teachers serve as the role models for the students [13Shukla S. Teaching competency, professional commitment and job satisfaction-A study of primary school teachers. IOSR J Res Meth Edu 2014; 4: 44-64.].

Commitment is divided into three dimensions, i.e. organizational commitment, professional commitment, and union commitment [14Kadyschuk R. Teacher commitment: A study of the organizational commitment, professional commitment, and union commitment of teachers in public schools in Saskatchewan 1997.]. According to a study [15Allen N, Meyer J. The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance, and normative commitment to the Organization. J Occup Organ Psychol 1990; 63: 1-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1990.tb00506.x]
], commitment to the organization is the readiness to stay in the organization by connecting to the organization's goal. Hence, this study [15Allen N, Meyer J. The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance, and normative commitment to the Organization. J Occup Organ Psychol 1990; 63: 1-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1990.tb00506.x]
] addressed that commitment comprises three components i.e. affective, normative, and continuous. Professional commitment is the extent of the people acceptance of the profession and its value. Union commitment is a commitment to the professional association or union [14Kadyschuk R. Teacher commitment: A study of the organizational commitment, professional commitment, and union commitment of teachers in public schools in Saskatchewan 1997.].

Affective commitment, which is also addressed as attitude commitment refers to one's attitude that feels the relationship between himself with the organization is parallel. People with high affective commitment will remain in the organization because they are willing to [15Allen N, Meyer J. The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance, and normative commitment to the Organization. J Occup Organ Psychol 1990; 63: 1-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1990.tb00506.x]
].

Normative Commitment, which is one's desire to stay in the organization because of tasks and work obligation, dedication, or morale. Normally, this commitment is encouraged by individual culture and work ethics, making one feels obliged to keep staying in the organization. This commitment is different than the other two commitment because this commitment does not relate to the purpose or mission of the organization, but purely because of the values being carried along by the personnel [15Allen N, Meyer J. The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance, and normative commitment to the Organization. J Occup Organ Psychol 1990; 63: 1-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1990.tb00506.x]
].

Continuous commitment is referred to as calculative commitment, in which one considers economically that he needs to continuously be in the organization. The consideration is based on two points: (1) as an individual whose future is guaranteed, has become a senior personnel, expertise and membership that cannot be transferred, local affiliation, family bonding, and so on that need economic sacrifice; and (2) one that feels he has to continue to be in the organization because he has no other work option [15Allen N, Meyer J. The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance, and normative commitment to the Organization. J Occup Organ Psychol 1990; 63: 1-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1990.tb00506.x]
].

The factor that has an impact on teacher's organizational commitment is organizational climate school. Organizational climates school has an impact on employee’s positive emotions. The positive emotion of a teacher has implication on the organization [16Riad L, Labib A, Nawar Y. Assessing the impact of organisational climate on employees commitment. Bus Manag Rev 2014; 7: 357-64.].

The various problems in Banjarmasin City are low performance among students and low discipline among teachers. The condition has an effect on teachers organizational commitment. Teacher commitment can lead to lower quality of learning achieved by students. This problem is certainly a problem for schools, students, and teachers. The objectives of studies are:

  1. To analyze teachers organizational commitment for each dimension;
  2. To analyze teachers organizational commitment between excellent and low achievement schools;
  3. To evaluate teachers organizational commitment between excellent and low achievement schools in urban and suburban areas in Banjarmasin.

2. METHODOLOGY

The population of this study was all teachers in elementary schools in Banjarmasin as many as 2,276 of 247 elementary schools. To determine the respondents, the following criteria consist of (1) teachers who teach at state elementary schools, (2) teachers who have been taught in the schools since at least two years. The teachers consisted of 4 categories such as teachers on excellent schools in the urban area, teachers on excellent schools in the suburban area, teachers on low achievement school in the urban area, and teachers on low achievement school in the suburban area. The sample of the research consists of 247 teachers. Each school was taken as one sample of teacher. The number of teachers on excellent schools in the urban area was 15 teachers, the number of teachers on excellent schools in the suburban area was 15 teachers, the number of teachers on low achievement schools in the urban area was 108, and the number of teachers on low achievement schools in the suburban area was 109.

The characteristics of low achievement schools are low quality of school building, low-performance students, unhealthy environment and school culture, less efficient teachers and headmasters, and less innovative and less creative learning process. The characteristics of excellent schools are excellence, competence, and good performance schools [17Aslamiah and Suriansyah A. Teacher’s job satisfaction on elementary school. Relation to learning environment. Open Psychol J 2018; 11.]. Organizational Commitment Questionnaires (OCQ) by Allen and Meyer (1990) has been used to measure teacher’s organizational commitment. The organizational commitment questionnaires contain 24 items in three dimensions, (1) commitment for the schools effectively, (2) commitment for the schools continuously, (3) commitment for the schools normatively. All eight items of the affective commitment depend on the target and tap the mindset, and emotional attachment. Six items of continuous commitment refer to the organization, tap perceived costs or barriers to exit, and staying/leaving behavioral terms. Eight items of normative commitment scale refer to the organization. Five of the eight items directly refer to the focal behavior, staying/leaving. Three items indirectly refer to it (they mention remaining loyal or something similar) [18Jaros S. Meyer and Allen model of organizational commitment: Measurement issues. Icfai J Org Behav 2007; 4: 8-25.]. According to Allen and Meyer (1990), the instrument is valid and reliable to measure teacher’s organizational commitment through its five-point Likert scale with 1=strongly disagree; 2= disagree; 3=in between agreeing and disagree; 4=agree; 5=strongly agree. Cronbach alpha is used to measure the reliability, in which alpha should be greater than 0.7 [19Nunally JC. Pschometric Theory 2nd ed. 1978., 20Azwar . Seri Pengukuran Psikologi, Reliabilitas dan Validitas. Yogyakarta: Liberty UGM 1986.].

Data analysis are means, one-way ANOVA, and two-way ANOVA. Means are used to analyzing teachers commitment in every dimension, such as affective commitment, continuous commitment, and normative commitment. One-way ANOVA is used to analyze teachers organizational commitment between excellent schools and low achievement schools. Two-way ANOVA is used to analyze teachers organizational com-mitment between excellent schools and low achievement school in urban and suburban area. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 15 has been used in this study for the purpose of reliability testing (Table 1).

Table 1
The results of the reliability test.


3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

3.1. Teacher Organizational Commitment for Each Dimension

The number of teachers involved in this study based on sex is 112 (45.4%) male and 135 (54.6%) female. A public elementary school in Banjarmasin has female teachers more than male teachers. Teachers who graduated with the diploma degree are 166 (67.3%). The teachers with the bachelor degree are 81 (32.7%). Based on the education percentages, education background of the elementary school teacher is still low education, because education standard from Indonesian government for elementary teachers is bachelor degree.

Descriptive analysis is given in Table 2. Table 2 lists the means for each dimension in the commitment. It is seen that affective commitment is very high (mean = 3.77). This means that teachers in Banjarmasin committed effectively at a very high level. Continuous commitment is very high (mean = 3.83). Normative commitment has the high value of mean (mean = 3.38). The continuous commitment has the highest value of the mean. The continuous commitment describes economically reason. Mean for organizational commitment is 3.66, which is very high, indicating that teachers in Banjarmasin are committed to their schools.

Table 2
Mean of teacher commitment.


Furthermore, Table 3 shows that mean for teacher’s organizational commitment in excellent schools is higher than low achievement schools both in urban and suburban school. Affective commitment in excellent school has the mean value more than low achievement school both in urban and in a suburban area. Continuous commitment in excellent school has the mean value higher than low achievement school both in urban and in a suburban area. Normative commitment in excellent school has the mean value higher than low achievement school both in urban and in a suburban area. Mean of organizational commitment for excellent school is 3.93. Mean of organizational commitment for low achievement schools is 3.38. Mean of organizational commitment in excellent school is higher than low achievement school both in the urban and suburban area. School in urban has the higher of mean value than suburban school both in excellent schools and low achievement schools.

3.2. Teachers Organizational Commitment between Excellent and Low Achievement Schools

Test Result of H01: There is no significant difference in teacher’s organizational commitment between excellent school and no achievement schools in Banjarmasin, given in Table 4. Referring to Table 4, mean of organizational commitment both excellent schools and low achievement school are 3.93 and 3.38, with standard deviations 0.76 and 0.44, respectively. The result of one-way ANOVA reveals that F value is 51.370, significant at 0.000 levels. Hence, H01 is rejected as there are differences in the organizational commitment in Excellent and no achievement schools.

Table 3
Mean of organizational commitment based on school type.


Table 4
One-way anova for organizational commitment in excellent and low achievement schools.


3.3. Teachers Organizational Commitment between Excellent and Low Achievement Schools in Urban and Suburban Areas in Banjarmasin

The test result of H02: There is no significant difference in teacher’s organizational commitment between excellent schools and no achievement schools both in urban and suburban areas in Banjarmasin, given in Table 5. Table 5 shows that mean for teacher’s organizational commitment of excellent schools in urban is 4.11, and 3.29 for suburban. Mean of low achievement school in urban is 3.71, while the mean of low achievement school in sub-urban is 3.29. Two-way ANOVA result in Table 5 shows that F value for the interaction on teacher’s organizational commitment between excellent and low achievement schools both in urban and suburban areas is 5.368, which is significant (<0.05), hence the H02 is rejected. This shows that there are differences in teacher’s organizational commitment.

The result shows that mean value of each commitment is high value. The continuous value has the highest value. The continuous value explains that the teachers in Banjarmasin commit for their schools for the economic reason. Teachers commit for their school due to the work in the state elementary schools. They also work as the government worker, hence they must have the high commitment to works as the professional teachers. The teachers also get the certification funds from the government to be the professional teachers [21Arisanty D, Normelani E. Improvement of Teacher Professionalism through Certification Fund. 2016. In: International Conference on Education and Regional Development; Bandung: Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia. 2016.]. The government can stop the certification funds if the teachers have a low commitment. The teachers teach 24 hours/weeks as the requirement to get the certification funds. The teachers' hard work is a form of teachers organizational commitment.

Mean value of teacher’s organizational commitment in excellent school has a higher value than no achievement school. The mean value for teacher's organizational com-mitment in excellent schools is 3.93. Mean of organizational commitment for low achievement schools is 3.38. Teachers in excellent school have a high commitment to their organ-izational than low achievement schools. The teachers always improve their quality as professional teachers [22Mohamad R, Kasim A, Zakaria S, Nasir F. Komitmen Guru dan Kepuasan Kerja Guru di Sekolah Menengah Harian Berprestasi Tinggi dan Berprestasi Rendah di Daerah Kota Bharu, Kelantan. International Seminar on Generating Knowledge Through Research Universiti Utara Malaysia 2016.].

The teachers of the excellent schools and low achievement schools in both urban and suburban areas have differences in teacher’s organizational commitment. The mean value for teacher’s organizational commitment of excellent schools in the urban area is 4.11, and 3.29 for the suburban area. Mean of low achievement school in urban is 3.71 and 3.71 for suburban area. The teachers of the excellent schools in the urban area have better facility, higher quality of students and better climate school than suburban area, hence the teachers commitment is better in the urban area than the suburban area.

Primary education needs the high commitment of teachers to build the strength of primary education. Primary teachers need the satisfaction and good environment to build the high commitment the primary teachers due to the teachers' jobs are formed the quality of student and student acceptable in their environment [13Shukla S. Teaching competency, professional commitment and job satisfaction-A study of primary school teachers. IOSR J Res Meth Edu 2014; 4: 44-64.].

The school environment has a stronger impact on teachers' commitment [23Yu H, Leithwood K, Jantzi D. The effect of transformational leadership on teachers’ commitment to change in Hong Kong. J Educ Adm 2002; 40: 368-89.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09578230210433436]
]. Organizational climates create positive effects to increase teachers’ responsibility [24Hosseini M, Nia H. Correlation between organizational commitment and organizational climate of physical education teachers of schools of Zanjan. Int J Sport Stu 2015; 5: 181-5.]. Organizational climate has an impact on employee’s positive emotion, especially for teachers’ positive emotions in school, which is indicated by strong links, an identification with, and implication for the organization and their responsibility toward the organization [16Riad L, Labib A, Nawar Y. Assessing the impact of organisational climate on employees commitment. Bus Manag Rev 2014; 7: 357-64.].

Fig. (1)
Interaction among excellent and low achievement schools in urban and suburban areas in banjarmasin.


Table 5
Two-way ANOVA for teacher’s organizational commitment in excellent and low achievement schools in urban and suburban areas in banjarmasin.


A good school environment in an excellent school that can affect the teacher's positive emotions. Excellent school has a better facility, quality of student, and the conducive climate condition of schools than the no achievement school, hence the motivation of teacher is good. The school in urban has a better facility than the school in suburban therefore the motivation of teacher for teaching innovation in the urban area is higher than in suburban area. Teachers with positive emotions can increase their commitment to school organization.

CONCLUSION

Teacher organizational commitment in elementary schools in Banjarmasin is very good. The continuous value has the highest value of teacher organizational commitment. The continuous value is determined by economic motivation. The teachers get the certification funding from the government, hence they must have the commitment to be the professional teachers. The mean value of organization commitment both excellent schools and low achievement school are 3.93 and 3.38. Mean of teacher’s organizational commitment of excellent schools both in urban and suburban is 4.11, and 3.29, respectively. Mean of low achievement school both in urban and suburban is 3.71 and 3.29. F value for the interaction on teacher’s organizational commitment between excellent and low achievement schools both in urban and suburban areas is 5.368, which is significant (<0.05). It means a significant difference in teacher’s organizational commitment exists between excellent schools and no achievement schools both in urban and suburban areas in Banjarmasin.

ETHICS APPROVAL AND CONSENT TO PARTICIPATE

Not applicable.

HUMAN AND ANIMAL RIGHTS

No animals/humans were used for studies that are the basis of this research.

CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION

Not applicable.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

The author declares no conflict of interest, financial or otherwise.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The author would like to thank Dr. Deasy Arisanty, M.Sc, who has advised and revised the manuscript.

REFERENCES

[1] Firman H, Tola B. The future of schooling in Indonesia. Kokusai Kyoiku Kyoryoku Ronshu 2008; 11: 71-84.
[2] The World Bank. Executive Summary Transforming Indonesia’s Teaching ForceVol. I2010;
[3] Fullan M. The new Meaning of Education Change 1991.
[4] Lortie D. School Teacher: A Sociological Study 2002.
[5] Jannah W. Komitmen Guru dalam Melaksanakan Tugas di Sekolah Menengah Atas (SMA) di Kecamatan Rokan IV Koto. Jurnal Administrasi Pendidikan 2014; 2: 789-831.
[6] Mart C. A passionate teacher: Teacher commitment and dedication to student learning. Int J Acad Res in Prog Edu Dev 2013; 2: 437-42.
[7] Jazzar M, Algozzine B. Critical issues in educational leadership 2006.
[8] Kushman J. Teacher workplace commitment. Educ Adm Q 1992; 28: 5-42.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0013161X92028001002]
[9] Reyes P. Preliminary models of teacher organizational commitment: Implications for restructuring the workplace 1992.
[10] Hadi S. Effective Teacher Professional Development For the Implementation of Realistic Mathematics Education in Indonesia 2002.
[11] Nilan P. Teachers’ work and schooling in Bali. Int Rev Educ 2003; 49: 563-84.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:REVI.0000006928.59011.ef]
[12] Raju P, Srivastava R. Factors contributing to commitment to the teaching profession. Int J Educ Manag 1994; 8: 7-13.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09513549410065684]
[13] Shukla S. Teaching competency, professional commitment and job satisfaction-A study of primary school teachers. IOSR J Res Meth Edu 2014; 4: 44-64.
[14] Kadyschuk R. Teacher commitment: A study of the organizational commitment, professional commitment, and union commitment of teachers in public schools in Saskatchewan 1997.
[15] Allen N, Meyer J. The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance, and normative commitment to the Organization. J Occup Organ Psychol 1990; 63: 1-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1990.tb00506.x]
[16] Riad L, Labib A, Nawar Y. Assessing the impact of organisational climate on employees commitment. Bus Manag Rev 2014; 7: 357-64.
[17] Aslamiah and Suriansyah A. Teacher’s job satisfaction on elementary school. Relation to learning environment. Open Psychol J 2018; 11.
[18] Jaros S. Meyer and Allen model of organizational commitment: Measurement issues. Icfai J Org Behav 2007; 4: 8-25.
[19] Nunally JC. Pschometric Theory 2nd ed. 1978.
[20] Azwar . Seri Pengukuran Psikologi, Reliabilitas dan Validitas. Yogyakarta: Liberty UGM 1986.
[21] Arisanty D, Normelani E. Improvement of Teacher Professionalism through Certification Fund. 2016. In: International Conference on Education and Regional Development; Bandung: Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia. 2016.
[22] Mohamad R, Kasim A, Zakaria S, Nasir F. Komitmen Guru dan Kepuasan Kerja Guru di Sekolah Menengah Harian Berprestasi Tinggi dan Berprestasi Rendah di Daerah Kota Bharu, Kelantan. International Seminar on Generating Knowledge Through Research Universiti Utara Malaysia 2016.
[23] Yu H, Leithwood K, Jantzi D. The effect of transformational leadership on teachers’ commitment to change in Hong Kong. J Educ Adm 2002; 40: 368-89.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09578230210433436]
[24] Hosseini M, Nia H. Correlation between organizational commitment and organizational climate of physical education teachers of schools of Zanjan. Int J Sport Stu 2015; 5: 181-5.

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