Fig. (5) Model with the proposed central role of the airway smooth muscle (ASM) cell in airway inflammation and remodeling. Due to predisposition and/or environmental stimuli, ASM cells of patients with asthma express decreased levels of the C/EBPα. [Adapted from Borger P, Tamm M, Black JL, Roth M., Asthma: is it due to an abnormal airway smooth muscle cell? Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006 Aug 15; 174(4): 367-72].